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Book Review: Jonathan Edwards: A life. By George M. Marsden. Yale University Press. 505 pp.   Only one portrait of Jonathan Edwards was painted during his lifetime, a rather conventional “likeness” done by the Boston-based painter Joseph Badger. The face is severe, aloof, unsmiling and suspiciously similar to many of the other faces in Badger’s …

Chapter 1: A Note on Progress  in  

Book Chapter

The world is the outcome of movement. Whether we consider the rocky layers enveloping the Earth, the arrangement of the forms of life that inhabit it, the variety of civilizations to which it has given birth, or the structure of languages spoken upon it, we are forced to the same conclusion: that everything is the sum of the past and that nothing is comprehensible except through its history. ‘Nature’ is the equivalent of ‘becoming’, i.e., self-creation.

Chapter 1: Religion and Reason  in  

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If religion is significant when it deals with the whole range of man’s experience (which it is the business of reason to coordinate) and when it is concerned with the widest meanings, connections, and implications (all of which are the province of reason), and if religion is good when it promotes community (which is the function of reason in the life of the mind), it follows that reason must be a powerful ally of significant and good religion.

Chapter 1: The Career of Charles Hartshorne  in  

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Hartshorne’s dependence upon Whitehead finds clearest expression in his enthusiastic adoption of Whitehead’s view of the universe as essentially one of perpetual change and becoming, in opposition to the dominant views of traditional Western philosophy and theology that the basic realities of both God and the universe endure permanently without essential change.

Chapter 1: The Mass On The World  in  

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Using the Roman Catholic mass as a metaphor for his philosophical understanding of man in relation to the universe, the author explores in poetic prose the unity and sacredness of all creation using concepts like power, Word (logos), and fire to relate to ecclesiastical terms like communion and prayer, and emphasizing the simplicity, coherence and harmony of everything through the universal presence of the Word.

Chapter 1: The Narrow Ridge  in  

Book Chapter

Perhaps no other phrase so aptly characterizes the quality and significance of Martin Buber’s life and thought as the one of the ‘narrow ridge.’ It expresses not only the ‘holy insecurity’ of his existentialist philosophy but also the ‘I-Thou,’ or dialogical, philosophy which he has formulated as a genuine third alternative to the insistent either-or’s of our age.

Chapter 1: The Time in Which We Live  in  

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While achievements in practical and scientific matters has progressed by leaps and bounds, the presentation of the Christian religion is still frequently made in an atmosphere at once stuffy and old-fashioned.

Chapter 10: All Real Living Is Meeting  in  

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The difference between I-it and I-Thou is not carried over from the German to the English in translation, but the difference is important in indicating the two stages of Buber’s insight into man -- first, that he is to be understood, in general, in terms of his relationships rather than taken in himself; second, that he is to be understood specifically in terms of that direct, mutual relation that makes him human.

Chapter 10: The World Beyond  in  

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All experience necessarily takes place within the time sequence. It is not possible to speak meaningfully about anything which is outside time. Religion, if it is anything at all, to the average person is a set of beliefs about the "supernatural", "the eternal", "the future life", "heaven and hell", "immortality", "resurrection", or the "Day of Judgment". It is important to indicate an approach to the interpretation of these ideas in the light of an analysis of religious experience.

Chapter 10:<B> </B>The Question of Probability  in  

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All turns upon whether the "resurrection" really and objectively occurred. The claims of Jesus to represent the character of God, his claim to be the master of men and of their ultimate destiny, and his claim to be sent by God to effect the reconciliation between man and God would remain as the lunatic arrogance of a disordered mind if everything ended in the judicial murder of a field-preacher on a Roman Cross.

Chapter 11: Faith in Man  in  

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Man is an organic and organized whole, possessing a future consisting not merely of successive years but of higher states to be achieved by struggle, not merely survival, but some form of higher life or super-life.

Chapter 11: The Christian Message  in  

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The Christian message may be briefly summarized in the single assertion "Jesus is the Messiah." It would seem right to regard as truly "saved" anyone who has been given the grace of a high and noble purpose which draws him out of preoccupation with self into a full creative life which serves the development of community. Without underestimating the relevance of the positive Christian message, it is still important to recognize and gratefully to benefit from the other saving influences at work in human life.

Chapter 11: The Crucial Issue  in  

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Unless we are prepared to deny the historical evidence altogether, all of Jesus' qualities spring from one unforgettable demonstration -- that after a public execution Jesus Christ rose again from the dead. To the early Church this well attested fact proved his claims to the hilt.

Chapter 11: The World of <I>It</I>  in  

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Neither universal causality nor destiny prevent a man from being free if he is able to alternate between I-It and I-Thou. But without the ability to enter relation and cursed with the arbitrary self-will and belief in fate that particularly mark modern man, the individual and the community become sick, and the I of the true person is replaced by the empty I of individuality.

Chapter 12: Church, Bible, Prophecy, and Miracle  in  

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The church is an organism brought into being by the unique series of events associated with the life and death of Jesus of Nazareth. Divine inspiration can be intelligibly interpreted to mean that the Scriptures are very particularly transparent to and vehicles of the basic experiences called religious. The prophet is an interpreter because he is able to see the religious dimension in what appear to others as ordinary events. Miracle stories are faith-symbols, fundamentally ways of expressing the conviction that the nature of things is not just what it appears to be, but that there are resident in the world hidden depths and heights of possibility, for which from time to time there is at least some evidence.

Chapter 12: Some Reflections on the Rights of Man  in  

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Each individual has a duty to develop his own personality, to be placed in circumstances as favorable as possible to his personal development and not to be deformed by external coercion but inwardly super-organized by persuasion, in conformity with his personal endowments and aspirations.

Chapter 12: The Eternal Thou  in  

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Here are the hree most important aspects of Buber’s I-Thou philosophy. The first is the alternation between I-Thou and I-It. The second is the alternation between summons, the approach to the meeting with the eternal Thou, and sending, the going forth from that meeting to the world of men. The third is the alternation between revelation, in which the relational act takes place anew and flows into cultural and religious forms, and the turning, in which man turns from the rigidified forms of religion to the direct meeting with the Eternal Thou.

Chapter 12:<B> </B>Returning to the Source  in  

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Since modern man, for various reasons, is almost completely out of touch with the life and activity of the alert contemporary Church, he must be urged to go back and consider the act of divine initiative on which all Christian conceptions finally rest, before he can fairly observe any contemporary Church.

Chapter 13: Prayer and Sacrament  in  

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Prayer is a process in which the one who prays is constantly related in a profound way to his whole objective world (with both material and mental aspects) and is thereby creatively transformed into a mature person. In worship, the symbols too easily become ends in themselves. As such they are crystallized in the dogmatic finality of an Absolute Church. They are properly only means to an end -- the recognition of the whole world as a "sacramental universe".

Chapter 13: The Human Rebound of Evolution and its Consequences  in  

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From the coming of Man, biological evolution not only rebounds but it rebounds reflectively upon itself. The Darwinian era of survival by Natural Selection is thus succeeded by a Lamarckian era of Super-Life brought about by calculated invention. In Man evolution is interiorized and made purposeful.

Chapter 13: What is Man?  in  

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Buber defines ‘philosophical anthropology’ as the study of ‘the wholeness of man,’ and he lists the following as among the problems implicitly set up by this question: Man’s special place in the cosmos, his connexion with destiny, his relation to the world of things, his understanding of his fellowmen, his existence as a being that knows it must die, his attitude in the ordinary and extraordinary encounters with the mystery with which his life is shot through.

Chapter 13:<B> </B>Christian Revelation  in  

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For Christianity, although it is a religion in the sense that it links the life of man with the Life of God, it is far more than one of the world’s great faiths. It is the revelation of the way of true living.

Chapter 14: The Life of Dialogue  in  

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We must distinguish between two different types of human existence, one of which proceeds from the essence -- from what one really is -- the other of which proceeds from an image -- from what one wishes to appear to be. Like the I-Thou and the I-It relations, these types are generally mixed with one another since no man lives from pure essence and none from pure appearance.

Chapter 15: The Nature of Evil  in  

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>It is entering into relation that makes man really man; it is the failure to enter into relation that in the last analysis constitutes evil, or non-existence; and it is the re-establishment of relation that leads to the redemption of evil and genuine human existence.

Chapter 16: The Eclipse of God  in  

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A false security prevents us from making real our relationship to God, for the meeting with God takes place in the ‘lived concrete,’ and lived concreteness exists only in so far as the moment retains its true dialogical character of presentness and uniqueness.

Chapter 16:<B> </B>Problems of Suffering and Evil (1)  in  

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Evil is inherent in the risky gift of free will. There is an apparent flagrant injustice in the distribution of suffering. The man who has the attitude of mind which is rooted in eternity is neither deceived by the illusive glamours of this world nor unduly cast down by the unexplained suffering and the unsolved problems which confront him on all sides.

Chapter 17: The Redemption of Evil  in  

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The beginning of man’s redemption and that of the world is found in man’s turning from evil and taking the direction toward God. God ‘wishes to redeem us -- but only by our own acceptance of His redemption with the turning of the whole being.’ Our turning is only the beginning, however, for man’s action must be answered by God’s grace for redemption to be complete.

Chapter 17:<B> </B>Problems of Suffering and Evil (2)  in  

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To connect human disease with human sin is misleading. This question of the physical evil in the world leads us naturally on to the question of moral evil, which poses at least as difficult a question, even though it is sometimes argued that they are but different manifestations of the same thing. It seems to have been proved within out time that the problem of human evil is not much affected by better education, better housing, higher wages, and holidays with pay -- desirable as all these things may be for other good reasons.

Chapter 17:<B> </B>Problems of Suffering and Evil (2)  in  

Book Chapter

To connect human disease with human sin is misleading. This question of the physical evil in the world leads us naturally on to the question of moral evil, which poses at least as difficult a question, even though it is sometimes argued that they are but different manifestations of the same thing. It seems to have been proved within out time that the problem of human evil is not much affected by better education, better housing, higher wages, and holidays with pay -- desirable as all these things may be for other good reasons.

Chapter 18: For the Sake of Heaven  in  

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This chapter consists of a review of the ideas contained in Buber’s chronicle-novel For the Sake of Heaven. The plot shows that the redemption of God waxes in secret and through the very evil which tries to destroy it; for even the power of destruction derives originally from God.

Chapter 18: The Heart of the Problem  in  

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The total Unity of which we dream still seems to beckon in two different directions, towards the zenith and towards the horizon. We see the dramatic growth of a whole race of ‘spiritual expatriates’ -- human beings torn between a Marxism whose depersonalizing effect revolts them and a Christianity so lukewarm in human terms that it sickens them.

Chapter 18:<B> </B>The Challenge to Living  in  

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If we take Christ seriously we cannot avoid the conclusion that our status in the next stage of existence will be largely determined by our behavior in this one. Yet Christ nowhere suggests that we should be "good," unselfish and loving merely because we shall thereby win a heavenly reward. Nor does he suggest that we should avoid evil merely because we shall otherwise suffer for it hereafter. No one who has seriously put his faith in Christ’s revelation ever wants to go back to a blind and purposeless existence.

Chapter 19: Buber’s Theory of Knowledge  in  

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The real conflict for Buber is not between philosophy and religion, but between that philosophy which sees the absolute in universals and hence removes reality into the systematic and the abstract and that which means the bond of the absolute with the particular and hence points man back to the reality of the lived concrete -- to the immediacy of real meeting with the beings over against one.

Chapter 19: The Missing Dimension  in  

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Christianity is an invitation to true living, and its truth is endorsed only by actual experience. When a man becomes a committed Christian he sooner or later sees the falsity, the illusions, and the limitations of the humanist geocentric way of thinking.

Chapter 2: Christ in the World of Matter  in  

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A mystical vision of Christ emanating from a painting on a church wall and blending into all humanity as well as the universe itself in a highly visionary description of the omnipresence of God as "all-in-all."

Chapter 2: Faith and Unfaith  in  

Book Chapter

The complexities of the modern human scene baffle and bewilder many men and women. They fail to see sense or purpose and are frightened at the new vistas of humna knowledge and power which are continually opening up in a multitude of fields. To them, the church seems almost totally irrelevant, an icon of a bygone age.

Chapter 2: How to Make Religion Intelligible  in  

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How do you obtain intelligible religious outlook in these times? The procedure is to begin by finding certain universal, ultimate experiences which can be intelligibly described, which shed light upon traditional religious ideas and which may contain valuable further implications.

Chapter 2: The Problem of Evil  in  

Book Chapter

It is in a middle position between the unreality and the radical reality of evil that we shall always find Buber. His attitude has changed from a tendency to regard evil in largely negative terms to a tendency to ascribe to it greater and greater emotional and ontological reality. But he has never considered evil an absolute, nor has he lost faith in its possible redemption.

Chapter 2: What is Really Real?  in  

Book Chapter

There is something logically arbitrary about every detail of the universe which the determinist cannot eradicate. Hartshorne goes as far as to say that "the world as a whole is a matter of chance." In the final analysis, things happen just because they happen; there is no sufficient reason why things are as they are, and "preference is ultimate." Thus human conscious experience is our only reliable key to unlock the mysteries of reality.

Chapter 20: Education  in  

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There are two basic ways by which one may influence the formation of the minds and lives of others. In the first, one imposes one’s opinion and attitude on the other in such a way that his psychic action is really one’s own. In the second, one discovers and nourishes in the soul of the other what one has recognized in oneself as the right. The significance for education of this distinction between propaganda and legitimate influence can hardly be overestimated.

Chapter 20:<B> </B>Re-presenting Christianity  in  

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We must seize every modern means of communication for re-presenting Christianity. The pressing task is quite simply to tell people what the basic content of Christianity is, and to give them some information of what the Christian Church is achieving in the face of ignorance, fear, disease and sheer physical human need in many parts of the world.

Chapter 21: Psychotherapy  in  

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Buber’s dialogical philosopohy does not exclude the findings of the more scientifically or mechanistically oriented school of psychology. However, the philosophy of dialogue limits their competence to judge the essence of man as a whole in relation to other men. In this chapter, Buber’s ideas are compared with many in the field: Eric Fromm, Ferdinand Ebner, Victor von Weizäcker, Ludwig Binswanger, Arie Sborowitz, Carl Jung, Sigmund Freud, Hans Trub and Carl R. Rogers.

Chapter 21:<B> </B>Christ and the Church  in  

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Accepting the divine entry of God into human history through the man Jesus Christ explains the extraordinary strength and resilience of the Christian Church, and also why it is a mistake to regard it as a purely human organization of those who happen to share the same religious views.

Chapter 22: Ethics  in  

Book Chapter

That which matters is the critical flame shooting up ever again out of the depths, and the truest source for this critical flame is the individual’s awareness of what he really is, of what in his unique and nonrepeatable created existence he is intended to be. The ethical is the acceptance or denial of actions not according to their use or harmfulness but according to their intrinsic value and disvalue.

Chapter 22: The End of the Species  in  

Book Chapter

Until Darwin, Man, although he knew that the human race might continue to exist for a long time, had not suspected that it had a future. Now however, because he was a species, and species change, he could begin to look for and seek to conquer something quite new that lay ahead of him.

Chapter 23: Social Philosophy  in  

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Martin Buber has refused to fall into the dilemma of the either-or of individualism and collectivism. In both cases he has resolved the tension between the two poles through a creative third alternative -- the relation between man and man. This relation takes place not only in the I-Thou of direct meeting but also in the We of community.

Chapter 24: Symbol, Myth, and History  in  

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God is the ‘wholly Other’. He is also the wholly Same, the wholly Present. He is the Mysterium Tremendum that appears and overthrows; but He is also the mystery of the self-evident, nearer to me than my I. Buber’s concepts of symbol, myth and history (of myth) are detailed.

Chapter 25: The Faith of the Bible  in  

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The new total viewpoint of Buber’s science of Biblical study has without question created a new situation in Old Testament scholarship. For the first time there has arisen a real Jewish critical study of the Bible -- Jewish and critical at once -- which does not allow its way to be dictated to it by foreign tendencies. Buber’s analysis of the biblical concepts of creation, revelation, the kingship of God, and the God of the sufferers is presented.

Chapter 27: Buber and Christianity  in  

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A number of Christian scholars who were influenced by Buber’s thought are listed here. Buber was influenced by Christianity. He writes: "From my youth onwards I have found in Jesus my great brother. That Christianity has regarded and does regard him as God and Saviour has always appeared to me a fact of the highest importance which, for his sake and my own, I must endeavour to understand. . . . My own fraternally open relationship to him has grown ever stronger and clearer, and today I see him more strongly and clearly than ever before. I am more than ever certain that a great place belongs to him in Israel’s history of faith and that this place cannot be described by any of the usual categories."

Chapter 3: A Plea for Understanding  in  

Book Chapter

It is not farfetched to suggest that the depletion of spiritual capital accounts for the breakdown of moral standards in our society. For moral standards ultimately depend upon something transcending the human scene.

Chapter 3: Change  in  

Book Chapter

A world where change occurs must be a surprising world and one where both history and possibility are regarded as real and important. This means that the world will be seen as possessing a depth and a richness beyond the mere appearance of successive states and configurations of things. The awareness of change provides the ground for one of the fundamental forms of religious experience. Some basic religious concepts grow out of an interpretation of this experience.

Chapter 3: Hasidism  in  

Book Chapter

The real essence of Hasidism is revealed not so much in its concepts as in the three central virtues which derive from these concepts: love, joy, and humility. For Hasidism the world was created out of love and is to be brought to perfection through love. Love is central in God’s relation to man and is more important than fear of God, justice, or righteousness.

Chapter 3: The Grand Option  in  

Book Chapter

The mass of mankind, when it has passed beyond its ‘critical point of socialisation,’ will penetrate for the first time into the environment which is biologically requisite for the wholeness of its task.

Chapter 3: The Spiritual Power of Matter  in  

Book Chapter

Behind the poetic language and imagery Chardin depicts creation as an evolutionary process with the existence of matter as the necessary precondition for the appearance on earth of spirit, and describes matter as the "matrix of spirit" in which life emerges and is supported.

Chapter 3: What Is Man?  in  

Book Chapter

Hartshorne reasons that man is more than his cellular processess and is as much a "single dynamic unit" as any of the electrons or cells that constitute his body. A particular man is the common denominator of a connected series of experiences. "Social" is the coordinate processes of weaving one’s own life from strands taken from the lives of others and giving one’s own life as a strand to be woven into their lives. Love is the supreme ethical standard. And the experiences of the dead are all everlastingly preserved in their total value, exactly as originally experienced, in the everlasting and omniscient memory of God.

Chapter 4: Dependence  in  

Book Chapter

Religion grows out of a consciousness of dependence. This is expressed in thankfulness which begets generosity, confidence, and humility.

Chapter 4: Mysticism  in  

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Buber’s thought gradually matured from the time of his earliest essays to a mature philosophy during the first two decades of the Twentieth Century. The early period of mysticism evolved into a period of existentialsm to a developing diaological philosophy. However, he does not discard the thoughts of the earlier period, but they are preserved in changed form.

Chapter 4: Pensees  in  

Book Chapter

A collection of short meditations. In a thoughtful way Chardin explores the omnipresence of God in the world, humans as supernatural beings in the natural evolutionary process, and the meaning of human endeavor as the realization of Christian charity.

Chapter 4: Some Reflections on Progress  in  

Book Chapter

However bitter our disillusionment with human goodness, there are stronger scientific reasons than ever before for believing that we do really progress and that we can advance much further still, provided we are clear about the direction in which progress lies and are resolved to take the right road.

Chapter 4: What Is Supreme Reality?  in  

Book Chapter

Hartshorne examines the shortcomings of humanism, classical theism, and explains the differences between pantheism and panentheism (meaning "all-in-God"). Every possible argument for God must show that doubt of God is doubt of any and all truth, renunciation of the essential categories of thinking.

Chapter 5: Order  in  

Book Chapter

The world is ordered in many ways: by a temporal order, by causal connection, as located, in terms of quantity, with various qualities, the possibility of classification, by the relatedness of things. Order my also be described in terms of community, of law, and moral order. Still other aspects of order are in "The Word of God," including "The God of Love." Illumination, meaning, insight, and confidence are also instruments of order.

Chapter 5: Philosophy of Judaism  in  

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In Buber’s early philosophy of Judaism good is identified with decision of the whole being, evil with the directionlessness that results from failure to decide. His existentialism, his philosophy of community, his religious socialism, and his dialogical philosophy all develop within his philosophy of Judaism as well as outside of it.

Chapter 5: Some Aspects of Hartshorne’s Treatment of Anselm by John E. Smith  in  

Book Chapter

Does logic reflect the nature of reality, or is it a merely formal structure governing the use of language’? In short, are we to have no more than "logic without ontology’’? Smith believes that Hartshorne takes too lightly the view that logic marks out the domain of the "necessary," while the "real" coincides with the domain of fact. The problem with this juxtaposition is that the "real’’ and the necessary are mutually exclusive.

Chapter 5: The Limitations of Science  in  

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We all owe an incalculable debt to the science which is applied to our common life. But there are ways of apprehending some kinds of truth which are quite independent of the scientific method. Sometimes these are intuitive and sometimes they are developed by long practice, and of course sometimes they are both.

Chapter 5: The New Spirit, 1942  in  

Book Chapter

In order to match the new curve of Time, Christianity is led to discover the values of this world below the level of God, while Humanism finds room for a God above the level of this world.

Chapter 6: Life and the Planets  in  

Book Chapter

What does the world-adventure upon which we are embarked look like, when we seek to interpret it both objectively and hopefully in the light of the widest, soundest and most modern concepts of astronomy, geology and biology?

Chapter 6: Nature, God, and Man by Paul Weiss  in  

Book Chapter

The originality of Hartshorne’s discussions about the nature of God, and particularly his daring and novel defense of the ontological argument, have led some to overlook the fact that, as he himself says, his primary interest lies elsewhere. Weise indicates the way he believes Whitehead’s and Hartshorne’s views should be altered, and how they could be extended and filled out -- while maintaining their characteristic thrust and flavor.

Chapter 6: Philosophy of Realization  in  

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Buber’s thoughts go beyond transcendental ideals through the influence of Kant to Wilhelm Dilthey, to Nietzsche, to Kierkegaard & Dostoievsky, to his own reflection in the unity of the philosophy of realization.

Chapter 6: Value  in  

Book Chapter

Value is the ground of loyalty. It also gives zest and interest to life. It destroys boredom. It leads to sensitivity rather than callousness, to responsibility rather than neglect, to decisiveness in place of faltering. It is the source of energy for creative living rather than static existence. Out of the experience of value spring not only the positive responses of faithfulness and love but also the sense of tragedy.

Chapter 6:<B> </B>The Beginning of Wisdom  in  

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There may be suprahuman wisdom, and we might well assume an attitude of wholesome humility when we reflect upon our relative insignificance. Can we not accept the suggestion that there are facts, even "scientific" facts, which we can never know because we are incapable of understanding them?

Chapter 7: A Great Event Foreshadowed: The Planetization of Mankind  in  

Book Chapter

The rising of the masses and the socialisation of Mankind is associated with the closed shape of the earth, the mechanics of generation and the psychic properties of human matter. In the cosmic sense, because it is the expression and prolongation of the primordial process whereby, at the uttermost extreme from the disintegrating atom, psychic force is born into the Universe and continuously grows, fostered by the ever more complicated grouping of matter.

Chapter 7: Dialectic of Religion and Culture  in  

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Buber’s dialectic combines a theory of religious symbolism with a philosophy of history. Culture and religiousness replace one another in the history of peoples. Culture is the stabilization of the life impulse and life forms between two religious upheavals. Religion is the renewal of the life impulse and life forms between two cultural developments.

Chapter 7: Imperfection  in  

Book Chapter

The idea of progress comes out of the sense of imperfection, as does the idea of God as transcendent. Thus a sense of divine purpose along with a religious experience growing out of hope is generated.

Chapter 7: Imperfection  in  

Book Chapter

The idea of progress comes out of the sense of imperfection, as does the idea of God as transcendent. Thus a sense of divine purpose along with a religious experience growing out of hope is generated.

Chapter 7:<B> </B>The Necessity for True Religion  in  

Book Chapter

Too many have allowed themselves to be put off by the hypocrites, the obscurantists and the lovers of power, who exist in any religious system -- as they do elsewhere. The man who possesses a strong religious faith knows very well that there are hundreds of questions which are likely to remain unanswered. But he is in possession of a strong clue to reality and a conviction that he is cooperating with a purpose transcending present observed material phenomena.

Chapter 8: Community and Religious Socialism  in  

Book Chapter

Neither the socialist power-state nor the capitalist state are evil in themselves, but both are evil whenever they prevent the springing-up of the good. The answer is found in the strengthening of the forces of good through the will for genuine relationship and true community.

Chapter 8: God  in  

Book Chapter

The world as it meets one in religious experience is a person-producing and person-enhancing world. Any encounter of this kind is a personal encounter. Therefore God is personal. Impersonal encounters are experiences of the relatively static, the unrelated, the random, the irrelevant and the conservative. Other concepts are also discussed: The meaning of the Word "God, Monotheism, "God" defined, God’s existence, Polytheism, Arguments for existence of God, Omnipotence, Omniscience, Immanence and Transcendence, Creation, and God as personal.

Chapter 8: Overcoming Reductionism by John B. Cobb, Jr.  in  

Book Chapter

Hartshorne’s concern is more with the question of what anything must be to be at all, than with determining which entities in the universe have which characteristics. On the whole Cobb has accepted and adopted Whitehead’s cosmology, though much in his thought is distinctively his own.

Chapter 8: Religion and Modern Knowledge  in  

Book Chapter

As modern knowledge advances and hitherto insoluble problems are solved, a good deal of religion will be seen to be based on false premises, to be inadequate for modern conceptions of the universe, or to be little more than a collection of superstitious taboos.

Chapter 9: A New Look at Christianity  in  

Book Chapter

It is extraordinary that men and women of unusual ability in their respective spheres have rarely taken the trouble to give their adult attention to such a unique way of life as that proposed by Jesus Christ. Each one of us must eventually face the real issue, which is quite simply: do I believe after adult examination of the evidence that Jesus Christ was what he claimed to be, or am I prepared to assert quite definitely that he was wrong in his major claims and that, though much of his teaching is beautiful, he himself was a self-deceived fanatic?

Chapter 9: Good and Evil  in  

Book Chapter

Community is the ultimate standard by which good is measured, Therefore the basic sin is destruction of community. Love is the fundamental law of life and hate and estrangement are the fundamentals of sin.

Chapter 9: The Place of the Brain in an Ocean of Feelings by George Wolf  in  

Book Chapter

Wolf looks at Hartshorne's philosophy from the perspective of a psychologist. He suggests tht we monitor spontaneous, complex events in individual atoms and transduce these events into a form that can readily be perceived. Suppose it turned out that people regularly sense something aesthetically or emotionally familiar in the atomic patterns but not in the control patterns. This would not by itself be convincing evidence that there is sentience present. But it would raise interesting questions for further inquiry.

Chapter 9: Threshold of Dialogue  in  

Book Chapter

Each thing and being has a twofold nature: the passive, appropriable, comparable, and dissectible and the active, unappropriable, incomparable, and irreducible. He who truly experiences a thing that leaps to meet him of itself has known therein the world. The contact between the inexpressible circle of things and the experiencing powers of our senses is more and other than a vibration of the ether and the nervous system -- it is the incarnate spirit.

Charles Hartshorne

Book

(ENTIRE BOOK) A clear statement of Hartshorne’s "Process Theology" in lay terms. Hartshorne enthusiastically adopts Whitehead’s view of the universe as essentially one of perpetual change and becoming, and relates this concept to traditional Christian theology.

Communities of Faith and Radical discipleship – An Inerview with Jürgen Moltman

Article

In this interview, noted German theologian Jürgen Moltmann discusses the development of his theology, his interest in the international Pentecostal movement and his participation in the Christian-Marxist dialogue during the 1960s. Moltmann feels that the future of the Protestant church in Europe lies not with the large state church, but with small communities of faith, …

Conclusion  in  

Book Chapter

The author gives a quick summery of Buber: Compared with Kierkegaard, Dostoievsky and Nietzshe; his philosophy of dialogue; the inclusion of tragedy within the redemption of evil which marks Buber’s deepest realism; Buber’s insight in the I-Thou to I-It concepts.

Conclusion  in  

Book Chapter

The trend of modern thought, with its concentration upon making the most of this present life and the tacit assumption that death means extinction, makes it particularly easy for people to disbelieve in, or to ridicule, life after death. But historically, it is the conviction of unseen realities which has given men and women invincible strength.

Conclusion  in  

Book Chapter

As the end of time approaches a terrifying spiritual pressure will be brought to bear on the limits of the Real, born of the effort of souls desperately straining in their desire to escape from the Earth. The extraordinary adventure of the World will have ended in the bosom of a tranquil ocean, of which, however, each drop will still be conscious of being itself. The dream of every mystic will have found its full and proper fulfillment.

Did Schweitzer Believe in God?

Article

During last year’s Albert Schweitzer Centennial Symposium at UNESCO in Paris, psychoanalyst Erich Fromm raised a pertinent question: “Is Schweitzer’s religious ethic of reverence for life dependent upon a belief in God?” The question is not as easy as it appears, but it is my contention that, mutatis mutandis, the ethic of reverence for life …

Edwards for Us

Article

The Puritans were earnest folk They had little patience with those who had no depth, no deep conviction, no profound concern with what God was doing in their lives. They wanted everyone to become a believer of course — to assent to the reality of God and God’s providence, justice and compassion, and thus find …

Emil Brunner: A Centennial Perspective

Article

During the ten years immediately following the war, which were an exciting period of biblical renewal and theological ferment, American theological students were reading the works of the existentialist Søren Kierkegaard, the Lundensian Lutheran theologians Anders Nygren and Gustaf Aulén, and the so-called dialectical or neo-orthodox Swiss theologians Karl Barth and Emil Brunner. Though the …

Existence and Actuality: Conversations with Charles Hartshorne

Book

(ENTIRE BOOK) These chapters present a criticsl discussion among eminent philosophers, theologians, and Hartshorne himself on Hartshorne’s method, his logic, his theism and his metaphysics. Both proponents and critics of this honored philosopher contribute essays to this volume, and Hartshorne writes extensive response to each writer.

Faith and Freedom

Article

The limits of self-analysis are obvious, and I shall not dwell on them. But as I look back over the past ten years of my life, I am impressed less by how my mind has changed than by how it has remained the same. True, I have already entered my sixth decade, and having thus …

Feuerbach’s Religious Illusion

Article

BOOK REVIEW: Feuerbach and the Interpretation of Religion. by Van A. Harvey. Cambridge University Press, 319 pp., $59.95. Man’s nature, so to speak, is a perpetual factory of idols. —John Calvin   According to the Hebrew scriptures, humans were made in the image and likeness of God. But the perceived kinship between deity and humanity …

From Earth to Heaven: Teilhard’s Politics and Eschatology

Article

Twenty years ago, on April 10, 1955, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin died, bequeathing to his friends the critical task of sorting through hundreds of manuscripts on theology, mysticism, philosophy and evolution whose publication the Roman Catholic Church — and Teilhard’s vow of obedience to it — had forbidden. As his books and papers continued to …

God Our Contemporary

Book

(ENTIRE BOOK) The relationship of man with the contemporary God. Man’s conditions of life, his perceptions and outlook, his attitude of mind, both toward himself and toward any possible Creator, have all changed so enormously in the last sixty or seventy years that we face an almost a new situation.

God’s Response-Empowering Grace and Creaturely Cooperation: God’s Action in the World of Science

Article

Christians in general and Evangelicals in particular typically believe that God acts. These believers want to talk coherently and adequately about God’s action in the world: in their own lives, in the lives of others, and in all creation. The Bible, which is the Christian’s primary resource for theology, indicates that God is active throughout …

God’s Last Laugh

Article

In a passage in Umberto Eco’s The Name of the Rose, one monk furiously upbraids another one for presuming to think that Christ ever laughed. We may dismiss his rigidness as excessive, but the question remains: Why does laughter hold such a meager place in our religion? In the church I attended as a boy, …

Godless Theology

Article

All who believe and think about what they believe are theologians. The theology of all believers is the foundation for every academic theology. But does that mean that Christian theology can be nothing other than a self-related “doctrine of faith,” to echo the title Schleiermacher gave his modern theology? Does it mean that only people …

Heidegger Is No Hero

Article

I find myself in a rather odd position writing on Martin Heidegger. I find it particularly odd writing on the relation between his political life, on the one hand, and his philosophical and methodological view, on the other. Odd because, despite my best efforts at finding the “bottom line” in his thinking, I have never …

Heidegger: Master of Questions

Article

BOOK REVIEW: Martin Heidegger: Between Good and Evil, by Rüdiger Safranski. Harvard University Press, 474 pp., $35.00. “Moths fly into the light.” So Heidegger’s most prominent student, Hans- Georg Gadamer, characterized Heidegger’s effect on his students at the University of Marburg in the 1920s. Although Heidegger expressed doubts about whether he would ever be capable …

Horizons of Hope

Article

"In hope we were saved" (Spe salvi facti sumus). Pope Benedict’s encyclical Spe salvi, released in late 2007, begins with this quote from Paul’s letter to the Romans (8:24). Benedict goes on immediately to speak of redemption: "According to the Christian faith, "redemption "– salvation — is not simply a given. Redemption is offered to …

Hymn of the Universe

Book

(ENTIRE BOOK) Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, scientist and Christian mystic, draws on his background in both science and theology to present a unique harmonizing of their often divergent attempts to define and understand reality.

Intelligible Religion

Book

(ENTIRE BOOK) This book is addressed to both believers and unbelievers and examines a number of areas of religious thought and practice including an approach to intelligible religion, the fundamentals of religious experience, the existence and nature of God, the problem of good and evil, the meaning of the supernatural and of future life, the significance of Christ, the Church, the Bible, miracles and prayer.

Introduction, by N.M. Wildiers  in  

Book Chapter

This preparatory word presents a broad framework for approaching the thought of Pere Teilhard, particularly his concept of the omnipresence of the divine Word.

Introduction: How I Got That Way by Charles Hartshorne  in  

Book Chapter

How philosophers think about religion may well depend largely on how they have encountered it in childhood and youth. Believing this, Hartshorne tells us a bit of the genealogy that makes up his genes and the background that provides the grounds of his theology.

Introduction: View Point and Method  in  

Book Chapter

The subject of this book is not the life or the personality of Jesus, but only his teaching, his message. Little as we know of his life and personality, we know enough of his message to make for ourselves a consistent picture. What the sources offer us is first of all the message of the early Christian community, which for the most part the church freely attributed to Jesus. This naturally gives no proof that all the words which are put into his mouth were actually spoken by him. As can be easily proved, many sayings originated in the church itself; others were modified by the church.

Jesus and the Word

Book

(ENTIRE BOOK) An historical presentation of the teachings of Jesus in the setting of the thought of his own time. There is here a summary of Bultmann's controversial method of Biblical interpretation, which tries to recover the deeper meaning behind the mythological concepts of the New Testament.

Luther as Skeptic

Article

Martin Luther: The Christian Between God and Death, by Richard Marius. Harvard University Press; 542 pp. $24.50. Most of Martin Luther’s biographers end their books in the 1520s, some 20 years before Luther’s death. This allows them to leave Luther as a revolutionary (and theological) hero, rather than as an established curmudgeon. And it enabled …

Personal Foreword  in  

Book Chapter

Our society is marked by no accepted standard of values beyond the purely material, the false god of success, the lure of glamorized sex, the love of money and the "rat-race" of business or social competition. When the true God is unknown, that combination of awe, love, respect, admiration and wonder, which we call worship, becomes diverted toward human beings who exhibit unusual gifts in the public eye. Without the Spirit of the living God the public conscience is capricious and ill-informed.

Preface  in  

Book Chapter

The most obvious form in which the unity of Buber’s thought expresses itself is his philosophy of dialogue, and much of this book is centered on the development and implications of that philosophy. Buber’s thoughts are drawn together in terms of his attitude toward the nature and redemption of evil. The author shows the significance of this attitude for such fields as ethics, social philosopohy, psychotherapy, and education.

Preface  in  

Book Chapter

Charles Hartshorne has become the most forceful and convincing interpreter of Whitehead, and to him belongs principal credit for shaping the influence of process philosophy upon contemporary philosophical theology.

Reconsidering Albert Schweitzer

Article

The hundredth anniversary of Albert Schweitzer’s birth has been marked by observances commemorating his contributions to medicine, music, theology and world peace. Perhaps the most notable of these celebrations were the blue-ribbon conference hosted by UNESCO in Paris and the Atlanta Symposium of the Albert Schweitzer Centenary. The latter featured performances by the Atlanta Symphony, …

Second Chance for Thomas

Article

Book Review: The Theology of Thomas Aquinas. Edited by Rik Van Nieuwenhove and Joseph Wawrykow. University of Notre Dame Press, 472 pp.’ $37.50. Holy Teaching: Introducing the Summa Theologiae of St. Thomas Aquinas. By Frederick Christian Bauerschmidt. Brazos, 352 pp., $27.99 paperbavk. One of the fascinating aspects of the events surrounding the passing of Pope …

Selected Bibliography  in  

Book Chapter

I. Works by Hartshorne An exhaustive bibliography of Hartshorne’s published writings from 1929 to 1967, compiled by Mrs. Charles Hartshorne, included in Ralph E. James, The Concrete God: A New Beginning for Theology-The Thought of Charles Harishorne (Indianapolis-Bobbs.Merrill Company, 1967), pp. 195-223. A less exhaustive but useful bibliography of Hartshorne’s writings, also compiled by Mrs. …

The Future of Mankind

Book

(ENTIRE BOOK) Pierre Teilhard de Chardin was a Jesuit priest, paleontologist and Christian mystic. This collection of his essays reveals his concepts of "social heredity" and progress, "the planetization of mankind," and the Noosphere -- a biological interpretation of human history. Teilhard was prevented by the church from publishing his work while he remained alive.

The Practical Theology of David Ford

Article

If The United States and Great Britain are “two nations separated by a common language,” then perhaps Christian theologians of the two countries are separated by a common theology.” American and British theologians oft en find themselves in significant agreement — drawing on similar sources and reaching shared conclusions — but geographical distance as well …

The Ultimate and the Ordinary: A Profile of Langdon Gilkey

Article

When the winter quarter ended this year at the University of Chicago Divinity School, Langdon Gilkey, the Shailer Mathews professor of theology, retired after a quarter-century at the school, where he had been a colleague of such eminent theologians and scholars of religious studies as Paul Tillich, Mircea Eliade, Paul Ricoeur and David Tracy. Although …

Theology Now?

Article

Whether there can be theology here and now becomes a serious question only when the subject of theology is taken to be of the utmost seriousness. This condition has hardly characterized the religious scene in recent times. The question has therefore appeared to be not so much serious as interesting, or academic. Not knowing what …

Thinking Our Way to the Ultimate

Article

BOOK REVIEW:In Face of Mystery, by Gordon Kaufman. Harvard University Press, 509 pp., $39.95. For nearly 25 years, Gordon Kaufman has been a senior professor of theology at Harvard. His earlier books, such as Systematic Theology: A Historicist Perspective (1968), God the Problem (1972): and An Essay on Theological Method (1975), have been important contributions …

Thomas Merton: The Global Future and Parish Priorities

Article

It is rare, I believe, for one theologian to be able to give us general priorities for congregational life. Most theological authors are specialists: one interprets the scriptural foundations for preaching and teaching, another explains how to “manage” ministry, and others confine themselves to some particular subsection of parish life — liturgy, youth work, pastoral …

Thorn in the Side

Article

Book Review: With the Grain of the Universe: The Church’s Witness and Natural Theology By Stanley Hauerwas. Brazos Press, 250 pp. Religious liberals need Stanley Hauerwas, a perpetual disturber of their peace. Religious conservatives can find him fruitfully unsettling too, since he is a pacifist and opposes capital punishment. But he offers basic reassurance to …

Translator’s Preface  in  

Book Chapter

The eschatological interpretation of human life was not merely the teaching of a prophet nineteen centuries ago, but is essentially true today as then. Jesus' message as he delivered it, not some modern variation or dilution of it, is his message today. The details of apocalyptic imagery are transitory (here is the germ of "demythologizing"), and wishful thinking about the world to come is valueless, even harmful; but the eschatological message, "The kingdom of God is at hand," "among you" not "within you," is relevant to any age, including our own.

Translator’s Note by Norman Denny  in  

Book Chapter

The elaborate neologisms and allusive formulations of words used by Teilhard to get around the shortcomings of language in expressing his thought, causes great problems to the translator. Some French does not translate well into English (and, of course, the reverse is often just as illusive).

Types of Wesleyan Philosophy: The General Landscape and My Own Research

Article

“How well do philosophy and religion agree in a man [sic] of sound understanding!” – John Wesley (Journal, Tuesday, July 3, 1753) The bulk of this paper entails my descriptions of four elements in a typology. I describe types of Wesleyan philosophy in terms of interests that those in the Wesleyan Philosophical Society might pursue. …

What Luther Got Wrong

Article

Thomas Aquinas has had a long but, on the whole, not very happy history among Protestants. While some early Protestant reformers were well versed in Thomistic theology, Martin Luther was not among them. Most of Luther’s important teachers were disciples of the Franciscan theologian William Ockham. The Occamists taught a theology of grace that tilted …