1  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

The Tao that can be trodden is not the enduring and

unchanging Tao. The name that can be named is not the enduring and

unchanging name.

10  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

When the intelligent and animal souls are held together in one

embrace, they can be kept from separating. When one gives undivided

attention to the (vital) breath, and brings it to the utmost degree of

pliancy, he can become as a (tender) babe. When he has cleansed away

the most mysterious sights (of his imagination), he can become without

a flaw.

11  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

The thirty spokes unite in the one nave; but it is on the empty

space (for the axle), that the use of the wheel depends. Clay is

fashioned into vessels; but it is on their empty hollowness, that

their use depends. The door and windows are cut out (from the walls)

to form an apartment; but it is on the empty space (within), that its

use depends. Therefore, what has a (positive) existence serves for

profitable adaptation, and what has not that for (actual) usefulness.

12  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

Colour’s five hues from th’ eyes their sight will take;

Music’s five notes the ears as deaf can make;

The flavours five deprive the mouth of taste;

The chariot course, and the wild hunting waste

Make mad the mind; and objects rare and strange,

Sought for, men’s conduct will to evil change.

13  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

Favour and disgrace would seem equally to be feared; honour and

great calamity, to be regarded as personal conditions (of the same


14  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

We look at it, and we do not see it, and we name it ‘the

Equable.’ We listen to it, and we do not hear it, and we name it ‘the

Inaudible.’ We try to grasp it, and do not get hold of it, and we

name it ‘the Subtle.’ With these three qualities, it cannot be made

the subject of description; and hence we blend them together and

obtain The One.

15  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

The skilful masters (of the Tao) in old times, with a subtle

and exquisite penetration, comprehended its mysteries, and were deep

(also) so as to elude men’s knowledge. As they were thus beyond men’s

knowledge, I will make an effort to describe of what sort they

appeared to be.

16  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

The (state of) vacancy should be brought to the utmost degree,

and that of stillness guarded with unwearying vigour. All things

alike go through their processes of activity, and (then) we see them

return (to their original state). When things (in the vegetable

world) have displayed their luxuriant growth, we see each of them

return to its root. This returning to their root is what we call the

state of stillness; and that stillness may be called a reporting that

they have fulfilled their appointed end.

17  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

In the highest antiquity, (the people) did not know that there

were (their rulers). In the next age they loved them and praised

them. In the next they feared them; in the next they despised them.

Thus it was that when faith (in the Tao) was deficient (in the rulers)

a want of faith in them ensued (in the people).<

18  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

When the Great Tao (Way or Method) ceased to be observed,

benevolence and righteousness came into vogue. (Then) appeared wisdom

and shrewdness, and there ensued great hypocrisy.

19  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

If we could renounce our sageness and discard our wisdom, it

would be better for the people a hundredfold. If we could renounce

our benevolence and discard our righteousness, the people would again

become filial and kindly. If we could renounce our artful

contrivances and discard our (scheming for) gain, there would be no

thieves nor robbers.

2  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

All in the world know the beauty of the beautiful, and in doing

this they have (the idea of) what ugliness is; they all know the skill

of the skilful, and in doing this they have (the idea of) what the

want of skill is.

20  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

When we renounce learning we have no troubles.

The (ready) ‘yes,’ and (flattering) ‘yea;’—

Small is the difference they display.

But mark their issues, good and ill;—

What space the gulf between shall fill?

What all men fear is indeed to be feared; but how wide and without end

is the range of questions (asking to be discussed)!

21  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

The grandest forms of active force

From Tao come, their only source.

Who can of Tao the nature tell?

Our sight it flies, our touch as well.

Eluding sight, eluding touch,

The forms of things all in it crouch;

Eluding touch, eluding sight,

There are their semblances, all right.

Profound it is, dark and obscure;

Things’ essences all there endure.

Those essences the truth enfold

Of what, when seen, shall then be told.

Now it is so; ’twas so of old.

Its name—what passes not away;

So, in their beautiful array,

Things form and never know decay.

22  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

The partial becomes complete; the crooked, straight; the empty,

full; the worn out, new. He whose (desires) are few gets them; he

whose (desires) are many goes astray.

23  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

Abstaining from speech marks him who is obeying the spontaneity

of his nature. A violent wind does not last for a whole morning; a

sudden rain does not last for the whole day. To whom is it that these

(two) things are owing? To Heaven and Earth. If Heaven and Earth

cannot make such (spasmodic) actings last long, how much less can man!

24  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

He who stands on his tiptoes does not stand firm; he who stretches

his legs does not walk (easily). (So), he who displays himself does

not shine; he who asserts his own views is not distinguished; he who

vaunts himself does not find his merit acknowledged; he who is

self-conceited has no superiority allowed to him. Such conditions,

viewed from the standpoint of the Tao, are like remnants of food, or a

tumour on the body, which all dislike. Hence those who pursue (the

course) of the Tao do not adopt and allow them.

25  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

There was something undefined and complete, coming into

existence before Heaven and Earth. How still it was and formless,

standing alone, and undergoing no change, reaching everywhere and in

no danger (of being exhausted)! It may be regarded as the Mother of

all things.

27  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

The skilful traveller leaves no traces of his wheels or

footsteps; the skilful speaker says nothing that can be found fault

with or blamed; the skilful reckoner uses no tallies; the skilful

closer needs no bolts or bars, while to open what he has shut will be

impossible; the skilful binder uses no strings or knots, while to

unloose what he has bound will be impossible. In the same way the

sage is always skilful at saving men, and so he does not cast away any

man; he is always skilful at saving things, and so he does not cast

away anything. This is called ‘Hiding the light of his procedure.’

28  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

Who knows his manhood’s strength,

Yet still his female feebleness maintains;

As to one channel flow the many drains,

All come to him, yea, all beneath the sky.

Thus he the constant excellence retains;

The simple child again, free from all stains.

29  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

If any one should wish to get the kingdom for himself, and to

effect this by what he does, I see that he will not succeed. The

kingdom is a spirit-like thing, and cannot be got by active doing. He

who would so win it destroys it; he who would hold it in his grasp

loses it

3  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

Not to value and employ men of superior ability is the way to

keep the people from rivalry among themselves; not to prize articles

which are difficult to procure is the way to keep them from becoming

thieves; not to show them what is likely to excite their desires is

the way to keep their minds from disorder.

30  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

He who would assist a lord of men in harmony with the Tao will

not assert his mastery in the kingdom by force of arms. Such a course

is sure to meet with its proper return.

4  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

The Tao is (like) the emptiness of a vessel; and in our

employment of it we must be on our guard against all fulness. How

deep and unfathomable it is, as if it were the Honoured Ancestor of

all things!

5  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

Heaven and earth do not act from (the impulse of) any wish to be

benevolent; they deal with all things as the dogs of grass are dealt

with. The sages do not act from (any wish to be) benevolent; they

deal with the people as the dogs of grass are dealt with.

6  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

The valley spirit dies not, aye the same;

The female mystery thus do we name.

Its gate, from which at first they issued forth,

Is called the root from which grew heaven and earth.

Long and unbroken does its power remain,

Used gently, and without the touch of pain.

7  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

Heaven is long-enduring and earth continues long. The reason

why heaven and earth are able to endure and continue thus long is

because they do not live of, or for, themselves. This is how they are

able to continue and endure

8  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

The highest excellence is like (that of) water. The excellence

of water appears in its benefiting all things, and in its occupying,

without striving (to the contrary), the low place which all men

dislike. Hence (its way) is near to (that of) the Tao.

9  in  Tao Te Ching

Book Chapter by Lao Tze

It is better to leave a vessel unfilled, than to attempt to

carry it when it is full. If you keep feeling a point that has been

sharpened, the point cannot long preserve its sharpness.

Asian Religions — An Introduction to the Study of Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Confucianism, and Taoi

Article by Kenneth W. Morgan

The study of a religion other than one’s own is a modern, and Western, phenomenon. The earliest reference to "the religions of the world" that Wilfred Cantwell Smith could find after a diligent search (discussed in his recent The Meaning and End of Religion) was in 1508 in Dyalogus Johannis Stamler Augustñ. de diversarum gencium …

Buddhism and Christianity: Advancing the Dialogue

Article by Niels C. Nielsen

Many church congregations make their first contact with practicing Buddhists when they sponsor refugees from Vietnam and Cambodia. In most American cities, the Buddhist community is not large, although it has grown with the influx of immigrants from Southeast Asia. The situation is very different in Hawaii — sometimes called the “Buddhist state.” The rate …

Chapter 10: Islam and the Moslems  in  What’s the Difference? A Comparison of the Faiths Men Live By

Book Chapter by Louis Cassels

Islam is the youngest of the world’s major religions, whose monotheistic beliefs established by the prophet Mohammed are intended to correct and compete with Judaism and Christianity. Its theology is straightforward and is buttressed with specific religious duties and moral rules that have made it particularly effective in attracting converts in the emergent nations in Africa and Asia.

Chapter 11: The Oriental Religions  in  What’s the Difference? A Comparison of the Faiths Men Live By

Book Chapter by Louis Cassels

Hinduism is primarily the religion of India, has no central figure, is essentially polytheistic and primitive, and focuses through multiple writings on concepts of karma as retribution requiring reincarnations to allow the individual opportunity to escape the cycle of suffering into nothingness. Buddhism began as a reform movement within Hinduism led by Siddhartha Gautama and issued in monastic rules to lead one’s escape from suffering due to desire into Nirvana. Both are found in the United States – Hinduism in the small Theosophical and Vedanta societies, and Buddhism in Americans of Japanese descent.

Chapter 11: The Sacred Literature of the Persians — Zoroastrianism  in  The Scriptures of Mankind: An Introduction

Book Chapter by Charles Samuel Braden

Zoroastrianism is little known and as a living faith no longer occupies a place of great importance, but it has been of enormous influence upon three of the main religions of the world, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, and therefore deserves to be better known. The canonical text, the Avesta is presented in its seven divisions: Yasna, Gathas, Visparad, Yashts, some other minor texts, the Vendidad, and some fragments.

Chapter 13: The Sacred Literature of the Moslems  in  The Scriptures of Mankind: An Introduction

Book Chapter by Charles Samuel Braden

Unlike almost all sacred literature, the Koran was written by one man, Mohammed. He probably did not know how to read or write. His teachings were compiled after his death. Mohammed believed his visions were from God, hence the Koran is the Word of God. It includes regulations for community living — laws of inheritance, responsibilities in marriage, care of orphans and the helpless. Through Mohammed, God was setting up his rule on earth — a true theocracy.

Chapter 2: The Jewish-Christian Heritage  in  What’s the Difference? A Comparison of the Faiths Men Live By

Book Chapter by Louis Cassels

The survival of the Jews as a self-conscious entity for forty centuries – twenty of them in often bitter estrangement from Christianity – is a historical mystery, and deserves careful analysis of the evolution of Semitic monotheism both in the Jewish understanding of covenant, Torah, messiah and obedience as well as Christian concepts of new covenant, atonement, sin and grace.

Chapter 3:<I> </I>Egyptian Sacred Literature  in  The Scriptures of Mankind: An Introduction

Book Chapter by Charles Samuel Braden

The people of Egypt never reached the stage at which they formed a definitive canon of writings which served as the basis of their faith. But they did have a very extensive sacred literature which was highly influential in the expression of their faith, and to some extent in the determination of that faith. Why Egypt never reached the point of canonization of her scripture can be a matter of conjecture only.

Chapter 4: Babylonian Sacred Literature  in  The Scriptures of Mankind: An Introduction

Book Chapter by Charles Samuel Braden

It was of course known from the Bible that there had been a very close relationship between the civilizations of the Hebrews and the Babylonian-Assyrian people. Five types of Babylonian writings are discussed: (1) The Creation Story and the Flood Story, that is, the story of mythological beginnings; (2) hymns and prayers, including their penitential psalms; (3) ritual texts; (4) their legal code; and (5) omens, all of which find some correspondence in the Bibles of most people.

Chapter 4: Is the Bible Infallible?  in  What’s the Difference? A Comparison of the Faiths Men Live By

Book Chapter by Louis Cassels

The Protestant embracing of the principle of private interpretation of scripture instead of the Catholic teaching of acceptance of its doctrine led to the development of "verbal inerrancy" and Fundamentalism as answers to the loss of authority symbolized on one side by Papal inerrancy and on the other by the demythologizing of liberalism. In the process Protestantism received benefits in the form of the social gospel, modern orthodoxy, and evangelicalism.

Chapter 5: The Sacred Literature of Hinduism  in  The Scriptures of Mankind: An Introduction

Book Chapter by Charles Samuel Braden

Four of the eleven principal living faiths of the world were born in India: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, and all have extensive sacred literatures. Hinduism itself? from which all the others have sprung, has a vast and highly variegated set of scriptures. In Hinduism it is to be found heights and depths of spiritual understanding that compare favorably with the best that have been found anywhere.

Chapter 6: The Puritan Heritage  in  What’s the Difference? A Comparison of the Faiths Men Live By

Book Chapter by Louis Cassels

The English Reformation produced Catholic and Calvinist factions. In this chapter Cassels traces the Calvinists who evolved in American Protestantism as Congregationalists with their emphasis on democratic government, individual freedom and social concern, and Baptists with their insistence on adult baptism by immersion, congregational autonomy and church-state separation.

Chapter 6: The Sacred Literature of Buddhism  in  The Scriptures of Mankind: An Introduction

Book Chapter by Charles Samuel Braden

Buddhism started in India in the sixth century B.C., but has slowly disappeared from India and has become a world religion, found all over eastern Asia. The sacred literature of Buddhism is extensive–thousands of books. It is very much alive, and as our world grows smaller, the Western world will find its ways of thought and life influenced by Buddhism.

Chapter 7: More Movements Born of the Church of England  in  What’s the Difference? A Comparison of the Faiths Men Live By

Book Chapter by Louis Cassels

Of the offshoots of the Church of England, Methodists grew greatly from humble beginnings under Anglican priest John Wesley to become the second largest Protestant denomination in America, first as a kind of “poor man’s” church and more recently as a middle class church. The Society of Friends with their emphasis on simplicity of life and faith has remained small but influential, as did the Mennonites from continental Europe with their anabaptist roots and pacifist beliefs.

Chapter 7: The Sacred Literature of the Jains  in  The Scriptures of Mankind: An Introduction

Book Chapter by Charles Samuel Braden

Jainism stresses, more than either Buddhism or Hinduism, ascetic practice as a way to salvation, and its insistence on the principle of non-injury, Ahimsa, is more absolute and far-reaching than that of any segment of Hinduism or Buddhism which also hold it. The three jewels, right faith, right knowledge, and right conduct, afford the clue to the attainment of moksha, or salvation, which to the Jain, as to the Buddhist, meant release from the wheel of birth, on which one is held by the law of Karma.

Chapter 8: The Faiths Born in America  in  What’s the Difference? A Comparison of the Faiths Men Live By

Book Chapter by Louis Cassels

America has eight native religious movements, each centered around a central doctrine or emphasis, including the Disciples of Christ and nondenominationalism, Unitarianism/Universalism and creedlessness, Mormons and the Book of Mormon, Seventh-Day Adventists and the sabbath, Christian Science and Science and Health, Pentecostals and the “gift of tongues,” Church of the Nazarene and sanctification, and Jehovah’s Witnesses and Armageddon.

Chapter 9 The Sacred Literature of the Chinese  in  The Scriptures of Mankind: An Introduction

Book Chapter by Charles Samuel Braden

Insight into the religions of the Chinese: Confucianism with its high ethical standards; Taoism and its more mystical, other-worldly point of view. Unlike the West, in China there is no sharp separation into religious groups but rather a syncretism, so that the typical Chinese have in them something of both tendencies, and a feeling they can express themselves in either.

Charismatics and Change in South Africa

Article by Irving Hexham and Karla Powe-Hexham

Imagine 5,000 young South Africans of all races living together for a week as part of a multiracial mission festival. They share accommodations in hotels and holiday apartments and eat their meals at festival gatherings. The speakers are drawn from all racial groups. Following one black evangelist’s powerful gospel message, the whole assembly breaks out …

Christian Fulfillment and Jewish-Christian Dialogue

Article by Isaac C. Rottenberg

Lively debates are taking place among Christian theologians in dialogue with Jews. Christians are seeking to discover what aspects of their faith are or are not negotiable as churches reassess their positions vis-a-vis Jews and Judaism. Quite understandably, the Christian belief in Christ as the world’s redeemer is at the center of Christian-Jewish dialogue. Or …

Comparative Religion: Whither — and Why? by Wilfred Cantwell Smith  in  The History of Religions: Essays in Methodology

Book Chapter by Mircea Eliade and Joseph M. Kitagawa (eds.)

Exciting new frontiers of inquiry and of challenge lie at a new and higher level than in the immediate past. I. The study of religion is the study of persons. II. The researcher must overcome the Western concept of the detachment of the investigator. III. The writer and the subject need a more personal relationship. IV. This relationship provides a larger sense of community.

Comparative Study of Religions: A Theological Necessity

Article by Ivan Strenski

This is not to underestimate the knowledge of native believers — those who understand their own religious language and no others. But theology is nothing if it does not aspire to second order, reflective knowledge; it cannot rest satisfied with the native believer’s knowledge, however proper that may be to living piety. Theological apprehension of …

Geopolitics Within Seventh-day Adventism

Article by Ronald Lawson

Unlike their mainstream Protestant counterparts, Seventh-day Adventist missionaries did not create independent national churches in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Instead the church’s extensive educational, medical and evangelistic endeavors led to a highly centralized system, headquartered in Washington, D.C. Indeed, the president of the General Conference has stated that the Adventist Church is …

Methodological Remarks on the Study of Religion’s Symbolism by Mircea Eliade  in  The History of Religions: Essays in Methodology

Book Chapter by Mircea Eliade and Joseph M. Kitagawa (eds.)

An attempt to show how we can envisage the study of religious symbolism in the perspective of the science of religions, and what the results of this procedure can be. Interest in symbolism has increased in recent times. Many attempts have been made to show the symbolic character of much of the human enterprise, from rite and myth to art and science. Since man has a “symbol-forming power,” all that he produces is symbolic.

On Understanding Non-Christian Religions by Ernst Benz  in  The History of Religions: Essays in Methodology

Book Chapter by Mircea Eliade and Joseph M. Kitagawa (eds.)

In Western Christian thinking God is personal; monotheistic, and differentiated from His creation. These concepts differ in other religions. The Eastern religions are totally "other" from the concept of Christianity. The author believes that through the eons of development our "religious" thought was begun probably in a similar way to that of the present Eastern religious thought.

Spiritual Healing On Trial: A Christian Scientist Reports

Article by Stephen Gottschalk

In May a young Christian Science couple pleaded Innocent in a Boston courtroom to charges of manslaughter in the death of their two-year-old son. Ginger and David Twitchell had sought to treat their son’s bowel obstruction through spiritual means. The case may not go to trial, for the Twitchells’ conduct appears to fall under a …

The History of Religions: Essays in Methodology

Book by Mircea Eliade and Joseph M. Kitagawa (eds.)

(ENTIRE BOOK) These essays in methodology are concerned with the need to establish the history of religion and comparative religion as a leading scholarly activity at the modern university. There is a danger that the history of religion and comparative religion will be totally absorbed by certain other fields (philosophy of religion, psychology, sociology, anthropology, history and theology). This book demonstrates that it is not merely ancillary to these other studies but is a discipline in its own right, drawing upon, yet making unique additions to, these areas of knowledge.

The Secular Selling of a Religion

Article by George E. La More, Jr.

After passing through an era dominated by rationalism, Western culture is experiencing an explosion of religious mysticism — a manifestation of the human spirit’s seeking to transcend the confines of the single-storied universe into which it has locked itself since the Enlightenment. Early seasons of mysticism are given to excesses of thrill-seeking and the occult. …

What Can Liberals and Evangelicals Teach Each Other

Article by Donald W. Shriver, Jr.

The challenge of writing poetry, T. S. Eliot once said, is dealing with “undisciplined squads of emotion.” The problem of writing about evangelicals, liberals and fundamentalists in today’s world of religion is one of undisciplined squads of definitions. I live and work at a seminary whose former president, Henry Sloane Coffin, gave to its theological …