Religious Television: The American Experience by Peter Horsfield
Dr. Peter Horsfield is an ordained minister in the
Uniting Church in Australia. He is currently employed on the Electronic
Culture Research Project, a special initiative of the Uniting Church's
Commission in Victoria to explore the impact of electronic media on global
cultures and the implications of this cultural change on religious institutions
and on the social experience and expression of religious faith. For ten
years previously he was the Dean of the Uniting Church's Theological Hall
and Lecturer in Practical Theology in the United Faculty of Theology in
Melbourne. He has published extensively in the areas of mass communication
and society and media, religion and culture. Among his publications are
two books: Religious Television: The American Experience (Longmans 1984)
and Taming the Television: A Parents' Guide to Children and Television
(Albatross 1986). This book was published in 1984 by Longman, New York. The text was prepared for Religion Online by Paul Mobley.
The author sets the stage for his examination of religious television in America. The issues involved and questions to be answered.
Chapter 1: The Emergence of Religious Television
Religion on television has been around since the inception of television, just as it was with early radio. The history of the first twenty years, including Bishop Sheen. The rapid expansion from 1960 and the shift from network donated time to purchased time.
Chapter 2: The Making of the Monopoly
Four main players in the growth of religious television are examined: the FCC, the television industry, the viewing public, and the religious broadcasters, including their use of sophisticated computer technology to "answer" mail and solicit funds.
Chapter 3: The Electronic Evangelists
Analysis of specific television evangelists including Oral Roberts, Jerry Falwell, Robert Schuller, Pat Robertson and CBN, all of whom had humble beginnings. Horsfield reviews their charisma, drive, planning, and in particular their marketing techniques.
Chapter 4: Religious Programs and Television Culture
Television's social functions. TV has exerted a strong censoring effect on the portrayal of religion. The author considers the dangers of TV's tendencies toward over simplification, instant gratification, and sensationalism, and concludes that when religious buys into the TV culture, it runs the risk of distorting not only life, but also religious faith.
Chapter 5: The Struggle within the Churches
The author examines the debate in the church over the growth of paid-time religious programs which has centered on several major issues, including the nature of the church, its mission, evangelism, pastoral care and counseling, and the social and political impact, and also the communication aspects: one way versus interactive communication. He concludes with some theological perspectives on the issues.
Chapter 6: Research and Religious Television
The absence of factual information about religious television led to speculation and rumors which were proved false through verification. The author reviews the considerable research on religious TV.
Chapter 7: The Effects of Paid-Time Religious Programs on the Structure of Religious Television
Horsfield documents the rapid growth of paid-time religious programming during the 1960's and 1970's.
Chapter 8: The Size of the Religious Television Audience
A major of TV success has been audience size, and this is especially true among paid-time religious broadcasters. However, actual audience size has been more modest than reported by most TV evangelists.
Chapter 9: Characteristics of the Religious Audience
Key questions about television audiences are examined. Who watches religious television programs? Are the programs viewed by people who are otherwise nonreligious or unchurched? Why do people watch these programs?
Chapter 10: Religious Television and Attitude Change
The initial purpose of religious television has been to change people to a particular religious view. Some people are changed, but who? Do they already favor religion and perhaps a particular religious belief? Is their faith strengthened?
Chapter 11: Religious Television and the Local Church
The local church, its members and particularly its leaders, may view religious television as in conflict with, and damaging to, their traditional functions. Is this so? The author looks at what is revealed by the research.
Chapter 12: Religious Television and American Culture
A major concern at one time was the political influence that religious programs have in the society. Research has shown that this influence is not very large, certainly not as large as that attributed to it by the news media. Horsfield looks in particular at Jerry Falwell and the Moral Majority.
Chapter 13: The Future of Current Trends
The auidience for paid-time religious programming reached a plateau in 1977, and has not changed significantly since. Religious television is thus not a universal model for religious faith. It is more of a specialized programming for a specialized audience.
Chapter 14: A Strategy for the Religious Use of Television
Television is a significant form of social communication. The author suggests several guidelines that should govern the church's involvement with television.
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