The Effects on Korea of Un-Ecological Theology
by Jong-Sun Noh
Jong-Sun Noh has taught at Yonsei University, Soonjun University, and Korea Christian Academy in Seoul. He studied at Yonsei University, Harvard Divinity School, Yale Divinity School, and Union Theological Seminary in New York. Among his publications are Social Ethics and Christianity, First World Theology and Third World Critique, and Religion and Just Revolution.This essay originally appeared as chapter 9 pp. 125-136 in Charles Birch, William Eaken and Jay B. McDaniel (eds.) Liberating Life: Contemporary Approaches in Ecological Theology, published 1990 by Orbis Books, Maryknoll, New York 10545. This material was prepared for Religion Online by Ted and Winnie Brock.
In the following essay the Korean theologian long-Sun Noh provides a telling analysis of injustice and suffering -- human and nonhuman -- in Korea. Writing from the perspective of Minjung theology -- a school of liberation theology specifically centered on the oppressed peoples of Korea -- Noh reports inductively on the sorts of oppression that often arise from, or are validated by, what the Minjung theologians call division theologies. These are theologies that reflect and endorse first world and imperialistic or colonialistic interests. In Korea we see the result of ways of thinking that have failed to be ecological and liberating. Nohís inductive and socio-historical method lays bare the result of unecological thinking. His concerns, and the concerns of many like him, have played a large part in motivating the thinkers represented in this book, who are working toward a more inclusive vision.
There were two pretty
Two Fishes: The Division of North and South Korea
This poem is a song that the young, conscientized university students love to sing in Korea. When they sing the song, the small pond refers to the Korean peninsula, and the two fish refer to the divided north and south.) As most of us know, North and South Korea have been divided for over forty-three years. Often, they have fought each other like two fish. Tragically, it is possible that, in the future, the pond as a whole -- the peninsula itself -- will be polluted by conflict in such a way that no life will be possible.
To many young Christians who sing this song, the song has two distinctively theological meanings. First, it means that the Korean peninsula was once beautiful, that it was created by God for Godís glory. The sun, the stars, the heavens, the earth, and that particular part of earth called Korea were designed to praise the Lord. Second, it means that this peninsula may someday become a place that cannot support life. It may become a place in which the integrity of creation of which the World Council of Churches speaks and toward which Christians rightly exercise respect, may become a mere wasteland of disintegration.
What are we to make of this song? What can the song mean for us? Should it mean that the death of the Korean peninsula -- its people and its nonhuman life as well -- is imminent? Should it mean that the biosphere in Korea will be so totally devastated that the waters, the fish, and the human beings there will die? Perhaps it can have an even broader meaning. Perhaps the little pond of death in the song can refer to the planet earth as a whole and to the global biosphere. Perhaps the song is instructive to both Koreans and to the people of the world in pointing toward the destructiveness of a certain kind of unecological theology -- what we in Korea call division theology -- that legitimates an oppression of people, of other animals, and of the earth itself. In what follows I will explain what I mean by division thinking, showing its influence on Korea, the land I know best.
In the pond by the name of Korea, the people of the north and the people of the south have fought and killed each other for over forty-four years. This conflict has been in fact a proxy war to benefit imperialist superpowers. Both North and South Korea have been the scapegoats for this neo-colonial proxy war, what amounts to a war of imperialist beasts, the dragons of the book of Revelation. Under the structure of this war, females and males of the human species have been and are currently dying, oppressed and exploited, even while they are unaware of the cause of their suffering or the cause of the division of Korea. Korean Christians have advocated and supported faiths, ideologies, and economics that legitimate division and are themselves divisive.
These division theologies (Bundan Shinhak) divide, violate, and destroy the integrity of Godís creation. Korean Christians must confess our responsibility here, for we have sometimes accepted such theologies as our own. At the same time, however, the politico-economic elites within the military-industrial complexes of the super, imperialistic, and hegemonic powers must confess their sin of destroying the pond, the Korean peninsula, of destroying a beautiful and integral part of Godís creation for their own political and economic ends. Let us review some of this history.
Although the Korean peninsula was once a unified community of nature and people, it has consistently been divided by outside forces. The sin of division and separation, breaking the one into two, was first plotted by Toyotomi Hideyosi, the Japanese general, and Weehahhoe, the Chinese general, in 1593, almost four hundred years ago. They proposed the division of Korea as a means of balancing power between the Japanese and Chinese hegemonies. They failed to respect that community which was the Korean people itself, along with the land they loved and the flora and fauna who dwelt among them. Division thinking begins by failing to respect existing communities of this sort.
The effects of such division thinking were exacerbated in the nineteenth century. In 1894 John W. Kimberly, the Minister of Foreign Affairs for Great Britain, the colonial power and chief oppressor of colonized people in the world at that time, again proposed the division of the Korean peninsula in order to make peace between Japan and China. This plan, designed from so-called first-world perspectives, essentially made Koreans scapegoats. It is noteworthy that President Truman and General MacArthur did not divide Japan, the war criminal, in 1945; instead, they divided Korea, the victim of world war and of colonial powers. In dividing Korea these men committed the sin of dividing and destroying a part of the integral order of creation itself. An integral order is deeply ecological in the sense that it involves a people in communion with their land. It is a community in the sense noted above: an ecological community of people living in meaningful degrees of harmony with one another and with the earth.
A few in the West recognized the need to respect such community. Averill Harriman, then the United States ambassador to Moscow, protested against MacArthurís plan to divide Korea because he knew that Korea had a history as one community with one race, and that no one should divide her. But the structures of MacArthurís consciousness -- which was built over a long period of his life with guns and swords -- were full of ruling ideologies, which wrongfully justified using the oppressed people as scapegoats for what he supposed to be justice, peace, and order. Though a so-called Christian working for justice, peace, and order in the created world, MacArthur did so from a consciousness informed by the hegemonic ideologies of the first world, ideologies that sought to divide existing communities. Thus Germany was divided after World War II. In Asia, by similar logic of division, Japan ought to have been similarly divided. But instead Korea was divided. This incident is not an accidental one.
The cause of this injustice can be traced back to 1905 when a secret agreement was made between President Taft (United States) and Prime Minister Katsura (Japan).1 The secret agreement was made because Japan wanted Korea as a colony and the United States wanted the Philippines; each agreed to support the other in these respective aims. The Philippines and Korea were the "food" for a coalition of Japanese and American imperialists. From 1910 to 1945 the leaders of the oppressed Korean people who tried to assert the self-reliance and independence of a united Korea were put into prisons, deported, exploited, tortured, politically assassinated, and martyred. The stories of their lives were not permitted to be put into print and were totally suppressed.
The people and their leaders who resisted the division of Korea could not enjoy the life spans given to them by God. Some, like Kim Koo, were killed by guns or stabbed to death by the hands of Cain, by the hands of men who rebelled against the will of God. Some, like Reverend Chun Dukee, were tortured to death. The length of their lives was shortened arbitrarily by the forces of the imperialist superpowers.
The sin of rebelling against God through the violation of the integrity of creation, through the destruction of the beauty and harmony of the Korean peninsula, was ultimately committed by military-industrial elites in collaboration with these superpowers, with Western European and North American colonial powers, and with Japan in Asia. This is a continuing sin based on action that followed the division thinking of the Taft-Katsura mentality.
Division Theology, Imperialism, and the Violation of Life
A kind of quasi-theology arose from the Taft-Katsura model. This quasi-theology is exemplified in the lives of men like the medical missionary Dr. William B. Scranton. Scranton was born in New Haven, Connecticut, graduated from Yale University, and received his M.D. degree from Columbia University in New York City. He was in certain respects a dedicated, loyal, and faithful servant of God, and he spent his life in Korea treating countless numbers of patients. He was one of the founders of the Sangdong Methodist Church, one of the first churches in Seoul City, and was at one time a district superintendent of the Methodist Church in Korea. In 1905 Imperial Japan forced Korea with guns and swords to sign a protectorate treaty and arrested all the diplomatic rights of Korea. This was the first stage of the colonialization of Korea by Japan. The Young Adult Association in the Sangdong Methodist Church began an active but nonviolent protest against Japanese Imperial colonialization. In response, Dr. Scranton, with the power of the district superintendent of the Methodist Church, disbanded the Young Adult Association of the church.
Dr. Scranton also took action against the pastor of the church, warning him not to make any political protests against the Japanese colonialization of Korea. This pastor, Chun Dukee, was very active in organizing the Shin Min Hwoe (New Peopleís Meeting), which had been working for the self-reliance, independence, and self-development of Korea, working in opposition to threats of colonialization by Japan. Numerous national leaders met with Chun Dukee, using the church as a secret gathering place. Among these were Yi Dongwhee, who later organized the Korean Communist Party, the first Communist Party in Asia; Kin Koo, who was respected as one of the genuine leaders of the Korean people for an undivided Korean peninsula and who was later assassinated by ultra-right-wing terrorists; and Yi Choon, the patriot who killed himself for the peace and independence of Korea.
Scrantonís warning to Chun Dukee and his disbanding of the Young Adult Association indirectly and directly contributed to the processes of enslavement and destruction of life. Scrantonís faith was informed by the Taft-Katsura model; it was centered in the interests of the imperialists. This first-world orientation led him unwittingly to support the destruction of humans and other living beings in Korea. In the language of the World Council of Churches, his actions against the people and the natural communities in the Korean peninsula were actions against the integrity of creation.
The Japanese colonial government, that resulted from the colonization, suppressed Christianity. It prohibited Korean ministers from reading the story of Exodus, the story of another enslaved people which rose up against another imperialist force; and from reading the book of Revelation, the story of passive resistance against the Roman Empire. Indeed, Korean Christians were not allowed to sing "Onward Christian Soldiers" because the Japanese government thought this hymn -- and the biblical stories mentioned -- would conscientize the people to fight against Japanese colonialism. These were the strategies of Japan to suppress the anti-Japanese independence movements among Korean Christians and to distort their faith.
What was the situation of human ecology in Korea under the Japanese colonial government? Young men in the Korean peninsula went to the proxy war and died there for the Japanese version of world peace and justice in Asia. Young women were forcefully "volunteered" to the Womenís Volunteer Corps and then misused as military prostitutes. Each woman was responsible for fifty to one hundred Japanese soldiers per day. They were systematically raped and subsequently died. There is no single memorial statue for the 200 thousand Korean women who died for the cause of the so-called justice and peace of the world.2 It is fair and essential to remember that many Christians supported these historical sins of imperialism, these and other cruelties by which imperialistic colonialism systematically destroyed the created order of nature, men, and women in the Korean peninsula.
Unlike the Israel of prophecy in Ezekiel, chapter 37, a Korea liberated from the Japanese in 1945 was still not a unified land. As noted above, the American general MacArthur divided Korea at this time. He and the United States divided Korea into two without any consent or even prior notice to any single Korean. This action was a clear violation of the rights of the Korean people. It further destroyed the life of the people and forcefully divided the members of countless families. Indeed, my own grandmother has been in North Korea since 1945, and my family has not heard anything of her for forty-three years. Division theologies fail to attend to those communities which are families, and which are among the most beautiful creations of God.
The United States decision to divide Korea clearly destroyed the integrity of many families. The south was placed under the Interim Military Government of the United States. Those who advocated unification were arrested, imprisoned, killed, eliminated from society, and labeled procommunist and leftist. Most of the Christians in the south, informed and guided by division faith, division ideology, and division theology, supported the "south-only election," which assured permanent division of the north from the south.
Division theologies -- by which families are separated, cultural traditions undermined, and natural communities destroyed -- characterized even some of the most astute of Western theologians. For example, John C. Bennett, one of the greatest Christian political ethicists and former professor at Union Theological Seminary, supported the United States foreign policy as a sort of manifestation of the justice, peace, and will of God.3 In actual fact, his support was the affirmation of the separation of families, husbands and wives, and the division of a whole people in the Korean peninsula. His theology was, as far as it concerned the Koreans, an imperialistic division theology. Later, in his book Radical Imperative: From Social Ethics to Theology, Bennett confessed his mistakes, and came to see that his view of American foreign policy in the 1940s and 1950s, a view that took American policies as manifestations and realizations of the kingdom of God, was gravely in error.
Reinhold Niebuhr also made mistakes in understanding Korea. In 1950 he interpreted the Korean War as a war against Russian communist world expansionism. His perspective had been centered on the U.S. and Russia and did not do justice to the Koreans, the scapegoats in this proxy war between the superpowers (see Noh, 1983). In his Intellectual-Autobiography Niebuhr, like Bennett, confessed his misinterpretation and his lack of fair attention to the destiny of Koreans and Vietnamese, scapegoats under the situations of proxy war (Niebuhr). Division ideologies, division faiths, and division theologies of the Koreans were products in many ways of the theologians of the superpowers. Such ideologies would eventually lead to the destruction of both human ecology and the biosphere in the Korean peninsula.
The Human and Nonhuman Consequences
What have been the practical consequences of these persistent efforts to divide Korea? Let us look. They include the sexual exploitation of women and the murder of protesters on Cheju Island; the development of a dependency upon nuclear powers; and an increasing dependence on polluting industry.
Cheju Island: Sexual Exploitation and Death
There is a beautiful island called Cheju in the southernmost part of the Korean peninsula. There are many oranges produced on this island, and it is one of the most popular honeymoon sites. It is also a popular place for international tourists in general and Japanese men in particular. This island is known as an island with an abundance of three things: wind, rocks, and women!
How romantic to see that there are many women in the southernmost island of Korea! However, not many people realize that there is a reason there are many women in that southernmost island with lots of oranges, tourists, and newlyweds. In fact, no one seems to ask the serious human ecological question of why there are so many women proportionally to men. Historical data on this matter has been legally banned from being published in any form for the last forty years. On 1 March, 1947, at a memorial rally on the island for the independence movement of 1919, two people were killed by government forces. Incidents on 3 April, 1948, led to the killing of eighty thousand islanders -- out of a total of 300 thousand who were labeled communist guerillas or pro-communists. Nearly one-third of the population on the island was killed. Almost all the males were eliminated. It will be the research task of engaged theological and biocentric ethics to know how many noncombatant civilians were killed in that massacre. According to the secret documents of the Far East Command, United States, later released to the public, the slogans of the Cheju Islanders were for the establishment of a self-reliant, unified Korean government and denied the division of the Korean peninsula, denying the south-only elections which eventually divided Korea permanently (see Merrill).
In 1988, on this island where almost all males were killed, there are many Geisha houses for non-Korean men only, each of which can entertain three hundred to five hundred Japanese men, men who do not need visas to come to the island for sex tourism. Is this a manifestation of the beautiful order of Godís creation? The descendants of the women of the Japanese Womenís Volunteer Corps who were forced into military prostitution have, in the 1980s, dedicated themselves to the sex tourism of Japanese men. In a twisted way, their work has been praised as patriotic and nation-building because it brings foreign money into the country. In a sermon, the pastor of one of the largest Pentecostal churches on the island called the action of the Geishas patriotic and then declared that these women should give more to the church from their income. Researchers at the International Christian Seminar on Women and Sex Tourism held on 20 April, 1988, at the YMCA. on Cheju Island reported that the Geishas, chatting to one another, said, "We need to have more Japanese tourists, so that we can give more to the church." Is this destruction of the human ecology representative of the integrity of Godís perfectly harmonized order of creation? This destruction involves the oppressed women of the most severely oppressed people in Korea. Such a violation of human ecology must be analyzed with regard to the domination of Korea by foreign powers and the divide-and-conquer strategies that continue to dehumanize the victimized people of the third world. So, too, must the current problems of nuclear weapons dependency. So, too, must the destruction of the ecological biosphere.
Currently the Korean peninsula is not self-reliant but is rather absolutely dependent on the nuclear war strategies of the superpowers in general and those of the United States in particular. It has been reported by many sources that there are more than enough nuclear bombs in South Korea to destroy the peninsula biologically forever. Reports indicate that there are from 120 to twelve hundred United States nuclear bombs in South Korea, and that there are approximately forty thousand United States ground troops stationed there. Russian nuclear weapons are targeted at South Korean military installations. American ground troops and civilians have efficient evacuation plans ready in case of emergency nuclear war. But there have been no reports on evacuation plans for the forty million Koreans in the south (it is not fair to comment on the case of North Korea without clear evidence).
Recently the Philippines has legislated a law declaring that those who bring nuclear weapons into the territory of the Philippines will be imprisoned for a sentence of at least six years and up to a maximum of thirty, and that all airplanes or ships carrying nuclear bombs will be arrested.4 There have been indications that the United States has explored plans to relocate the United States military from the Philippines to Taiwan. Such a relocation was strongly opposed by Taiwanese women delegates to the recent International Christian Seminar on Women and Sex Tourism, who insisted that it could result in making Taiwan a place of sex tourism for American soldiers. In the face of potential opposition, the United States has also examined the possible relocation of forces in the Philippines to Korea. Is it the case that the divided Korean peninsula will be the United States spare depot for nuclear bombs? Without prior notice to the NATO nations, United States troops are not allowed to use nuclear weapons in Europe. But in the case of the Korean peninsula, United States troops do have the power to start using nuclear weapons without any consent from the people, including the Korean commanders.
As was the case when Korea was divided in 1945, a decision-making structure that totally and intentionally ignores the opinions of any single Korean -- including the current Korean Commander-in-Chief of the military forces in Korea -- is applied now to nuclear-war strategies in Korea. From the time of the Korean War in 1950, an American was until just recently the commander-in-chief of all military forces, including the Korean forces, in South Korea. The decision-making structure still is not only an obstruction of internal justice, but it is a violation of international justice and of the sovereignty of Korea.
Korean life is threatened and the basic biological rights of Koreans are critically violated by the nuclear strategies of the United States. Neither can Russian responsibilities be ignored, since their nuclear weapons are ready to strike any part of the Korean peninsula. In the unfortunate case of nuclear war, Pyungyang City might be bombed by the nuclear warheads. What does this say of the survival of people in Seoul City? If Wonsan City is bombed, could the people of Kangnung City, Sokcho City, or Woolsan City in the south expect to survive? And what of nonhuman life in both the north and the south? What of the biosphere of the peninsula itself? What of even the fish in the Imjeen River or in the seas west and east of Korea? Americans in Korea have efficient evacuation plans, but the Koreans and the other living beings on the peninsula do not have such an escape. The entire peninsula and all its inhabitants are threatened with absolute devastation.
Japan declared an anti-nuclear policy by her constitution. Legally Japan is nuclear-weapon free. The Philippines also does not want to house nuclear weapons. Then why should Korea become the victim of the nuclear weapons of Russia and the United States?
But there are other problems.
Not long ago tens of thousands of people mourned the death of a fifteen-year-old boy who died of toxic poisoning as the result of working only six months in a mercury-producing factory. This is but a single example of how a once united land has become the scene of continued exploitation, and the example must be understood set against a recent background of general violence, division, and exploitation of Korean people and Korean land.
In April 1970, following a 1969 Nixon-Sato communique, the Mitsuya plan was proposed and subsequently implemented. The planís main points were as follows:
1. A unitary Japan-Republic of Korea (ROK) economic cooperation zone should be created to operate in the 1970s so that the two countries can develop a sort of Asian EEC (common market).
2. Japan will relocate to the South Korean industrial zone its steel, aluminum, oil refining, petrochemical, shipbuilding, electronics, plastics, and other industries that cannot be maintained in Japan because of pollution.
3. In view of the shortage of labor in Japan, Japan will also shift its labor-intensive industries to the ROK.
4. The ROK government will strictly prohibit labor disputes at factories for these Japanese-ROK joint ventures.
5. Flexible domestic measures will be taken within the ROK to facilitate this mode of operation (see Noh 1983).
This plan, one which again commits crimes of the Taft-Katsura type and of division theologies, is clearly exploitative. As with the problem of nuclear weapons, it clearly conjoins exploitation of and threats against the wellbeing of human beings with the exploitation of and threats against all of nature. This plan has been realized in what is now a pollution-dependent Korea through the cooperation of Japan and the United States. Ultra-right-wing theologies in Korea have interpreted the transfer of pollution-dependent industry to the ROK as a blessing, as a manifestation of Godís miraculous assistance toward economic growth. But this transfer of technology and industry from -- and the resulting reality of a dependency on -- the United States and Japan threatens the entire biosphere, the entire Korean peninsula. The mass destruction of human life -- as in the Bhopal incident in India or the Chernobyl nuclear incident in Russia -- could happen at any moment in Korea. The annihilation of human and nonhuman life is increasingly possible.
The economic policies of this plan have resulted in the systematic destruction of the sphere of food production in Korea, which now imports fifty to sixty percent of its total needs, mostly from the United States. Korea is now a country dependent for its food on the United States, although Korea had been self-reliant in terms of food production for thousands of years.
Up until the 1960s, eighty percent of the total population was located in the farming countryside. Now only twenty-seven percent lives in the agricultural sectors of the land. As is happening in so many parts of the world where Western models of development have prevailed, rural communities have been destroyed. Because of increasing food imports, there is no way for farmers to survive without giving up food production and that ecological sphere in which they once worked. Food is a weapon in neo-colonialistic capitalism. The food-dependent state cannot be politically self-reliant. In the Korea of today, Korean bachelor men who remain to live as farmers in the countryside are unable to find brides. Their livelihood is threatened from all sides. Because of imports of beef from the United States, farmers have had to kill their own cows -- and often themselves -- because of debts they have incurred in the current economic situation. Farmers have consistently lost their lands to become mere tenants. These peasants -- so connected as they have been to the earth -- have been the heart of the Korean nation. In 1894, Korea experienced the literal fall of a nation when peasants were killed in the Peasantsí Revolutionary War (see Noh 1987 and Noh 1988).
Toward a Theology of Silver Fish in the Imjeen River
To overcome the current critical situation, a theology of Jubilee must be declared in the land. Korean theologies have directly or indirectly supported the division of Korea, the violation of the integrity of creation, and the division-based psychoses and insecurities that have resulted from this violation and from the manipulation, intervention, and invasion of foreign superpowers. Korean theologies have been division theologies. They have led Korea toward an almost absolute submission to domination by the superpowers, a dehumanizing and degrading submission that has resulted in depressive frustration and neurotic inferiority complexes. As a consequence of this submission, Korean leaders and police have vented their frustrations by torturing their people, violating human rights, and raping subversive women students (as in the case of Deacon Moon Kiidong). These reactions are the symptoms of the collective division psychosis suffered by almost all the Korean people, a psychosis that has developed for over forty-four years. The only medication for such a sickness is the autonomy, self-reliance, and self-determination of the nation in an ecologically responsible way. A process for strengthening the peopleís power and reunifying a land that has been systematically victimized by the superpowers calls for a theology of reunification and self-reliance. The Korean situation calls for a theology like the one embodied in the following story of fishes in a divided land, a theology of silver fish.
In January 1987 Park Chongchul, a Seoul National University student, was arrested by the police, who simply wanted to question him about another friendís whereabouts. After overnight torture with water, and as a result of this torture, Park died. The police cremated his body hurriedly and tried to eliminate the evidence by throwing the ashes into the streams of the Imjeen River, which runs between the divided north and south of Korea. The life of one student, who shouted out for the autonomy, self-reliance, and reunification of a divided land and for the democratization of military dictatorships, was chemically reduced to a few grams of calcium, nitrogen, and so on. After the cremation, these chemical elements -- the ashes -- were thrown into the river. I dreamed that they became the numerous silver-colored fishes in the river. My hope is that these silver fish will live forever, or at least for as long and as far as the Imjeen River flows. They will swim in the demilitarized zone that divides Korea into two.
What we need is a theology of silver fish, a theology that moves beyond division thinking toward respect for the integrity of creation. A theology of silver fish will guide us into that beautiful unity of people in relation to one another and in relation to the earth, but it must do so by overcoming the division ideologies of foolish theologians and the division faiths of misguided Christians. If a theology of silver fishes emerges, one that respects the integrity of the Korean people and their beautiful peninsula, division theologies based on the division psychosis will be transformed into theologies that respect living communities of people and land. Then the memory of Park Chongchul, and the many others like him who have suffered so much, can be redeemed. Then the silver fish of the Imjeen river can themselves enjoy the unpolluting peace of the living Christ.
1. Ki-baik Lee writes, "Roosevelt felt, moreover, that it was necessary to acquiesce in Japanese domination of Korea as a quid pro quo for Japanís recognition of U.S. hegemony over the Philippines. This deal between the U.S. and Japan is revealed in the secret Taft-Katsura Agreement of July 1905. England, too, in renegotiating the terms of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance in August 1905, acknowledged Japanís right to take appropriate measures for the Ďguidance, control, and protectioní of Korea" (Lee, 309).
2. A monument related to this problem has been built recently in Chiban Prefacture, Japan. See Chung-Ok Yoon (a professor at Ewha University) 1988.
3. John C. Bennett writes: "I recognize in myself a too bland acceptance of national trends in the 1940ís and 1950ís. The fact that there was considerable harmony between my ethical convictions and the policies of the United States Government during the Second World War and during the early years of the cold war contributed to this" (Bennett, 9-10).
4. Chosun Daily News, 27 May 1988.
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Lee, Ki-baik. A New History of Korea. Trans. Edward W. Wagner. Seoul: Ilchokak, 1984.
Merrill, John. "Chejudo Rebellion." In The Island That Never Sleeps. Ed. Youngmin Noh. Seoul: Onnuree, 1988.
Neibuhr, Reinhold. "Intellectual Autobiography" in Reinhold Niebuhr: His Religious, Social, and Political Thought. Ed. C. W. Kegley and R. W. Bretall. New York:Macmillan, 1967.
Noh, Jong Son. First World Theology and Third World Critique. New York: Sung Printing Co, 1983. Seoul: Publishing, 1987
_____.Religion and Just Revolution. Voice Publishing, 1987.
_____.Toward a Theology of Reunification: Third World Christian Ethic. Seoul: Hanwoolsa, 1988.
Yoon, Chung-Ok. "Report at the International Christian Conference on Women and Sex Tourism," Chejudo YMCA. 20 April 1988.