Chapter 12: New Forms of Ministry  in  Ferment in the Ministry

Book Chapter by Seward Hiltner

Beginning with the missionary movement in the early nineteenth century the church began offering ministries to people in special settings or with special problems, including military and hospital chaplains, and service to the disadvantaged in urban, rural, suburban and metropolitan settings. This has involved reconsideration of the appropriateness, education, funding and accountability of these ministries.

Chapter 2: The Ministry of the Ante-Nicene Church (c. 125-325), by George H. Williams  in  The Ministry in Historical Perspectives

Book Chapter by H. Richard Niebuhr and Daniel D. Williams (eds.)

There is meager evidence for the end of the New Testament epoch and the beginning of the Patristic period concerning the various leadership positions. There were at least five competing images in which a chief pastor of a Christian church might see himself mirrored (c. 125): as an elder of a Christian sanhedrin, as an apostle, as a prophet, as a high priest, or as an epiphany of God or Christ to the Christian people. The various orders are gradually refined. The Nicene Council delineated an understanding concerning some of the ecclesiastical positions.

Chapter 3: The Ministry in the Later Patristic Period (314-451), by George H. Willliams.  in  The Ministry in Historical Perspectives

Book Chapter by H. Richard Niebuhr and Daniel D. Williams (eds.)

In the complete change of religious climate after Constantine most of the new patterns of priestly behavior and pastoral rule which were to prevail for a millennium in both Eastern and Western Catholicism until challenged by Protestantism were laid down in the period between the Council of Arles in 314 and the Council of Chalcedon in 451.