A Christian Critique of Pure Land Buddhism

Article by John B. Cobb, Jr.

                                                                I. The Point of View             I have been asked to provide a Christian critique of Pure Land Buddhism as that is presented in the three essays with which this volume begins.  It is important to underline the "a".  I cannot speak for Christians generally.  No one can.  And in my case I …

Abbreviations  in  The Lure of God: A Biblical Background for Process Theism

Book Chapter by Lewis S. Ford

Al Alfred North Whitehead, Adventures of Ideas (New York: Macmillan, 1933) CPA John B. Cobb, Jr., Christ in a Pluralistic Age (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1975) IL Lionel S. Thornton, The Incarnate Lord (London: Longmans, Green, 1928) PC David R. Griffin, A Process Christology (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1973) PR Alfred North Whitehead, Process and Reality (New York: Macmillan, 1929) …

Abbreviations  in  Process Philosophy and Christian Thought

Book Chapter by Delwin Brown, Ralph James, Gene Reeves (eds.)

Throughout this text the following abbreviations are used to refer to the principal works of Alfred North Whitehead. AE The Aims of Education and Other Essays. Macmillan, 1929. Al Adventures of Ideas. Macmillan, 1933. CN The Concept of Nature. Cambridge University Press, 1920. Dial Dialogues of Alfred North Whitehead, as recorded by Lucian Price. Little, Brown, 1954. ESP Essays in …

Becoming and Belonging

Book by Norman Pittenger

(ENTIRE BOOK) The meaning of human existence in the context of Process Theology. God creates each of us as a living process, not a static being, interacting constantly with God’s universe. Our highest human possibility is to move toward “the image of God.”

Being and Person

Article by John B. Cobb, Jr.

            Metaphysics seems to many a quite "impractical" enterprise.  And it is true that some pursue metaphysics simply out of the desire to know.  That is surely a laudable motive, and as our culture discourages such interests, it is all the more appropriate that a few of us should continue to encourage it.             Nevertheless, …

Bibliography  in  Process Philosophy and Christian Thought

Book Chapter by Delwin Brown, Ralph James, Gene Reeves (eds.)

The intent of this bibliography is to present, as far as possible, a complete listing of significant works on Whiteheadian process theology. It includes all of the works by Whitehead and Hartshorne that have obvious theological importance, works on theological topics that have been significantly influenced by Whiteheadian philosophy, and essays that are critical of …

Capek, Bergson, and Process Proto-Mentalism

Article by Andrew C. Bjelland

The panpsychism displayed in Whitehead’s elaborated accounts of temporality, causality, perception, and the subject-object correlation is a frequently noted and discussed aspect of his philosophy of organism. Panpsychist or proto-mentalist interpretations of Bergson’s thought, by way of contrast, are most rare.1 To the best of my knowledge, Milic Capek, in his Bergson and Modern Physics, …

Chapter 1: Introduction  in  Process-Thought and Christian Faith

Book Chapter by Norman Pittenger

The choice frequently offered is between being “a Christian” of a very narrowly “orthodox” type or being “a modern man.” But the Christian thinker can be both — by finding a “secular” confirmation for his belief in the God whose suffering love shares in the world’s pain while at the same time God’s triumphant joy is in part derived from the happiness which the world can know.

Chapter 1: Introduction  in  Whiteheadian Thought as a Basis for a Philosophy of Religion

Book Chapter by Forrest Wood, Jr.

Whiteheadian thought offers a different way of looking at reality that requires rethinking the way we view God. It begins with a philosophy that endeavors to frame a coherent, logical, necessary system of general ideas that combines a creative and unique expression of the nature and unity of God. It can lead us to an understanding of our personal faith as well as the religious experience of mankind.

Chapter 1: The Possibility of Belief  in  God Within Process

Book Chapter by Eulalio R. Baltazar

Modern man can no longer go along with the idea that to have faith, one has to abandon the historical, secular and earthly — that, in effect, he has to surrender his very humanity. To bring back a sense of belief to the modern world, there is need of a reformulation and broadening of our theological understanding of belief based on an evolutionary view of reality.

Chapter 1: Whitehead’s Pilgrimage to Process Theism  in  The Lure of God: A Biblical Background for Process Theism

Book Chapter by Lewis S. Ford

The understanding of God that Whitehead came to is sharply critical of many of our inherited notions, particularly concerning divine omniscience, omnipotence, and immutability. Classically, God’s power is seen in terms of omnipotence, and God is creator as the sole primary efficient cause of the world. In process theism God is primarily persuasive, creating more indirectly by providing the lure for each occasion whereby it can create itself.

Chapter 1: Witness to a Living God: The Old Testament  in  God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book Chapter by David P. Polk

TESTIMONY TO GOD’S POWER High up on the slopes of Mount Carmel, the conflict is joined. Two factions are present: the numerous representatives of Baal, and a single proponent of Yahweh by the name of Elijah. The issue to be decided is a simple but far-reaching one: whose god has power—which means, of course, whose …

Chapter 10: Odes to a Suffering God  in  God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book Chapter by David P. Polk

God’s immutability and God’s impassibility as apatheia are two sides of one coin. If God is beyond change, then it is not possible for God to be affected by what is other than God, wherefore God can be said to be “apathetic.” True, God could change in some ways and still be beyond affectations. But …

Chapter 10: The Spirit and the Divine Triunity  in  The Lure of Divine Love: Human Experience and Christian Faith in a Process Perspective

Book Chapter by Norman Pittenger

Somehow in God the basic truth of personality is combined with the equally basic truth of sociality — and this has implications for our view of human nature. The triunity of God can serve as a symbol, offering a hint or intimation into the mystery of God as God is active in the world; and our process conceptuality has made it clear that God is the divine activity.

Chapter 11: Love and Sexuality  in  The Spirit and the Forms of Love

Book Chapter by Daniel Day Williams

Though sex is not love and love is not always sexual they are linked, and Christian doctrine affirms that agape fulfills human loves including the sexual when sex transcends itself in self-giving to the beloved. The author explores this thesis in the light of Christian tradition, new understandings of sexuality, and the meaning of faithfulness, and suggests a sexual ethic that expresses justice, especially for women.

Chapter 11: Mourning over a Dead God  in  God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book Chapter by David P. Polk

Let us now turn back the pages of time and visit another kind of challenge to the theistic consensus that has accompanied what we have just been observing, as a concomitant undercurrent—namely, that the God of unqualified and opposable omnipotence is, in fact, not the living God of scripture at all but is, for all …

Chapter 12: Obituaries for a Patriarchal God  in  God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book Chapter by David P. Polk

From the 1970s, female scholars began to unveil what should have been obvious all along but had not been: that the champions of traditional theism were males championing a one-sidedly male image of the divine. Genesis 1:27 may have proclaimed that God created humankind in God’s own image, and created us “male and female,” but …

Chapter 13: Love and the Intellect  in  The Spirit and the Forms of Love

Book Chapter by Daniel Day Williams

The relation of love to the intellect proceeds from three assumption: first, that faith transcends rational categories through God’s self-revelation in Christ; second, that intellectual understanding is necessary for the guidance of human life; and third, that both seek the same object in God’s being and His revealed truth – namely, that it is through agape with its consequent repentance, humility, and understanding of human limits that the intellect can appropriately function.

Chapter 13: Inklings of an Impotent God  in  God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book Chapter by David P. Polk

We have entertained responses to traditional Christian theism that proclaim the liberating death of such a deity, or at least the death of the supreme masculinity of that God. These are one way to challenge the hammerlock hold that divine omnipotence has held over its adherents. Another path was also available, taken by some, that …

Chapter 14: Breakthroughs to a Loving God  in  God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book Chapter by David P. Polk

Themes that have been surfacing in the myriad of challenges to the Augustinian synthesis known as Christian theism overlap and interlock. The mystics’ deity was more fully identified by love than by power. A God not hemmed in by a doctrine of immutability becomes open to the adventure of divine love. A God who is …

Chapter 15: Hunger for a Liberating God  in  God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book Chapter by David P. Polk

Impulses for developing a theological understanding that is liberating for victims of a variety of types of oppression burst on the scene almost simultaneously. Three that came to prominence in the 1970s were the struggles against patriarchal oppression of women, racial oppression of Blacks in the United States, and economic and political oppression of the …

Chapter 16: Overtures to a Relational God  in  God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book Chapter by David P. Polk

We have examined how, one by one, elements of the Augustinian superstructure have crumbled away under the assault of competing ideas. God’s immutability has been disputed by the preferability of a divine nature that is open to, and responsive to, new developments, in continuity with the biblical witness. God’s stoic apathy under the doctrine of …

Chapter 17: Glimpses of a Revealed God  in  God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book Chapter by David P. Polk

To begin the task of reconceiving not a God whose power is loving but a God whose love is powerful requires a return to where we began, with another look back at the biblical witness that surely must underlie all theological formulation to some degree or other. If the concern in Part One was to …

Chapter 18: The Love of an Empowering God  in  God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book Chapter by David P. Polk

ENVISIONING A FRESH ALTERNATIVE: KEY COMPONENTS We are coming to an end of a long and fruitful journey, which is in turn a new beginning. The task that remains is to flesh out an understanding of how the love that is God empowers every becoming occasion to maximize its own exercise of power. I begin …

Chapter 2: Love in the Biblical Tradition: The Hebrew Faith  in  The Spirit and the Forms of Love

Book Chapter by Daniel Day Williams

In order to get a clearer perspective on the development of the doctrine of love we must examine the main themes of love in the Old Testament, including the covenant with the Hebrews as God’s act of love, the human love required in faithfulness to the covenant, and the suffering of God as a result of human sin in failing to keep the covenant.

Chapter 2: A Whiteheadian View of the Nature of Reality  in  Whiteheadian Thought as a Basis for a Philosophy of Religion

Book Chapter by Forrest Wood, Jr.

Whitehead’s view of the nature of reality offers a new way of thinking about “things,” and suggest that reality is not composed of things but of self-creative events, individual units, having both physical and mental aspects, and being internally related to each other. This offers an alternative to the mechanistic view of the nature of reality, and substitutes creativity in place of determinism.

Chapter 2: Divine Persuasion in the Old Testament  in  The Lure of God: A Biblical Background for Process Theism

Book Chapter by Lewis S. Ford

Whitehead had little affinity with the Old Testament’s barbaric conception of God. Rather, he was at one with Plato’s conviction “that the divine element in the world is to be conceived as a persuasive agency and not as a coercive agency.” Whitehead thought this concept was “one of the greatest intellectual discoveries in the history of religion.”

Chapter 2: Witness to a Living God: The New Testament  in  God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book Chapter by David P. Polk

The writers of the New Testament followed the precedent of the Greek translators of the Old Testament some 250 years earlier. “In classical Greek the meaning for agape was broad,” Bernard Brady reminds us. It “was used to suggest a variety of loves, such as affection, fondness, and contentedness. The translators [of the Septuagint] probably …

Chapter 24: Time, Progress, and the Kingdom of God by Daniel Day Williams  in  Process Philosophy and Christian Thought

Book Chapter by Delwin Brown, Ralph James, Gene Reeves (eds.)

Williams asks “Can we believe in the progress of the reign of God in history or is the ultimate conflict between His Kingdom and the kingdoms of this world unresolved to the end of time?” He suggests the answer does not emerge from liberalism or existentialism but rather through process theology.

Chapter 3: A Whiteheadian Concept of God: Defining God and Worship  in  Whiteheadian Thought as a Basis for a Philosophy of Religion

Book Chapter by Forrest Wood, Jr.

The author turns to Charles Hartshorne to interpret Whitehead’s concept of God as “the one who is worshiped.” Hartshorne suggests that “worship is the integrating of all one’s thoughts and purposes, all valuations and meanings, all perceptions and conceptions.” And God, the object of this worship, is “. . .the wholeness of the world, correlative to the wholeness of every sound individual dealing with the world.” This fits with the Whiteheadian world-view in which each individual entity is an integration of parts into a whole.

Chapter 3: Encounters with the Philosophers’ God  in  God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book Chapter by David P. Polk

“What indeed has Athens to do with Jerusalem? What concord is there between the Academy and the Church?” Tertullian famously queried around the turn of the third century CE (Prescription Against Heretics, 7).1 The question might just as well be turned on its head: What has Jerusalem to do with Athens? The early encounter of …

Chapter 3: Reasonability of Theistic Belief  in  God Within Process

Book Chapter by Eulalio R. Baltazar

One of the reasons for the denial of the reality of God by modern secularizers, by Sartre, Nietzsche, Marx, etc., was the identification of God with the other-worldly. Instead, God should be understood as the Creator-Ground of the universe in process. To attain the Ground is not a destruction of the universe or its abandonment, but its differentiation and fulfillment. God as Ground is not a threat to human growth, but rather the necessary condition for man’s fruition and maturation.

Chapter 3: The Human Person  in  Becoming and Belonging

Book Chapter by Norman Pittenger

To be human is not only to ‘become” but also to “belong.” In the world as we now know it to be, all the constituent events are held in some sort of continuity of aim or intention, whether this is consciously or unconsciously entertained. God, too, is affected and influenced by what happens in the world and in human life.

Chapter 4: Educational Principles  in  The Lure of Divine Love: Human Experience and Christian Faith in a Process Perspective

Book Chapter by Norman Pittenger

Dr. Pittenger addresses education from a process perspective and gives nine implications concerning its importance He concludes that education is to be considered as a matter of imaginative and aesthetic response to the human situation and to whatever is supremely worshipful in the cosmos — that is, to what religion calls “God.”

Chapter 4: The Establishment of Almighty God  in  God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book Chapter by David P. Polk

The early fourth century CE saw a tectonic shift in the fortunes of the oppressed but ever growing Christian community: The emperor Constantine handed over the reins of religious leadership in his empire to the church. One might readily surmise that the course of that century would bring forth significant theological developments demonstrating the connection …

Chapter 5: A Whiteheadian Concept of God: God in <I>Process and Reality</I>  in  Whiteheadian Thought as a Basis for a Philosophy of Religion

Book Chapter by Forrest Wood, Jr.

The author examines what Whitehead had to say about God in Process and Reality by dividing the discussion into two parts. First, the primordial or eternal nature of God as the principal of abstraction or originality and the source of the initial aim, and second, the consequent or temporal nature of God in which God, as part of reality, interacts with the rest of reality.

Chapter 5: Process Thought and Natural Sciences  in  An Introduction to the Process Understanding of Science, Society and the Self

Book Chapter by Leslie A. Muray

In its encounter with the sciences, process thought has not only appropriated new scientific insights but has attempted a mutual transformation through which the sciences are liberated from the dominance of the mechanistic, deterministic, substantialist view into a holistic relational vision that is more coherent, consistent, adequate to the facts, and congruent with the best in the contemporary scientific enterprise itself.

Chapter 5: Refinements of an Omnipotent God  in  God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book Chapter by David P. Polk

The “Dark Ages” were anything but dark insofar as ongoing theological inquiry is concerned. While following Augustine’s lead, new threads were woven into the fabric of his tapestry, including both a refined understanding of the character of God’s power and fresh reflections on the nature of God’s love. All of that came to a head …

Chapter 5: The Absence of God and God-Language  in  God Within Process

Book Chapter by Eulalio R. Baltazar

Ordinary language and scientific language by their very nature abstract from ultimate questions. Religious language, on the other hand, deals with ultimate and eschatological questions. For the eschatological dimension, we cannot use scientific or ordinary models of language. In the present, as linguistic analysts have seen, God-talk is neither verifiable nor falsifiable. But it is false to conclude that therefore God-talk is meaningless in itself.

Chapter 6: A Whiteheadian Concept of the Self  in  Whiteheadian Thought as a Basis for a Philosophy of Religion

Book Chapter by Forrest Wood, Jr.

In rejecting western philosophy’s concept of the self as substance based on Aristotle, Whitehead offers as an alternative to substance what he calls "an actual entity" which is changing, self-determined and creative. The problem is not the need to explain continuity as explained by determinism, but the need to explain originality which in turn leads to the concept of God as the source of ". . .the initial aim from which self-causation starts" and evolves into people who are self-creating entities, actively participating in their own creation, capable of creating novelty and assuming responsibility.

Chapter 6: God and Human Freedom  in  God Within Process

Book Chapter by Eulalio R. Baltazar

Man is not merely a Cartesian thinking substance. So against Sartre, man is not merely a self-constituting free (indeterminate) consciousness, the ultimate and sufficient source of creativity. Man also derives his meaning from his pre-historical past, an important source for any adequate and valid anthropology, but which the existentialists do not consider.

Chapter 6: Rearrangings of a Titanic God  in  God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book Chapter by David P. Polk

Titanic: adj., “pertaining to . . . enormous size, strength, power.”1 That the God of Christian theism we have been encountering could be characterized as “titanic” would seem obvious. That this is also the name bestowed on a doomed ocean liner is a provocative coincidence. For me to suggest that much of what followed right …

Chapter 7: God as Recipient  in  Becoming and Belonging

Book Chapter by Norman Pittenger

In process thought, God is the chief receptive agency in creation. Whatever is done, and wherever or by what or whom it is done, makes a difference to God, meaning that God is not only that One who effects things; but also is the One who is affected by things. He remains always God, yet the accomplishments of the created order are received by him into his own life, and to them he responds by making use of them for the furthering of his divine intention.

Chapter 7: The Problem of Evil from a Whiteheadian Perspective  in  Whiteheadian Thought as a Basis for a Philosophy of Religion

Book Chapter by Forrest Wood, Jr.

Whitehead’s metaphysical system led to Hartshorne’s exploring the theological implications surrounding the problem of evil and the necessity to reinterpret the omnipotence of God as understood in Thomism. Whitehead suggests that the fundamental category for understanding the universe is aesthetic valuation toward order and that the richness of creativity will sometimes produce aberrations as well as serendipitous outcomes. Destructiveness is to be found in the very nature of the creative process. God is only morally good if we are to understand that his goodness does not entail being without destructiveness.

Chapter 7: The Victory of a Stoic God  in  God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book Chapter by David P. Polk

The debate has long been waged as to which Greek philosophical system most extensively underlies the development of Christian thought in the West: the Platonism and neo-Platonism appropriated by Augustine or the Aristotelianism reshaped by Thomas Aquinas. With regard to an understanding of the power and love of God, I contend that neither was victorious. …

Chapter 8: A Whiteheadian Conception of Immortality  in  Whiteheadian Thought as a Basis for a Philosophy of Religion

Book Chapter by Forrest Wood, Jr.

Whitehead approaches the question of man’s desire for immortality, not by following the traditional path of the soul as having substance, but that every act, every event, every realization of value has everlasting significance and contributes everlastingly to the nature of things. We are part of the universe and part of God, the universe is a part of God, and God is a factor both in our personal existences and in the universe. Our immortality lies in the everlastingness and significance of each existence as a part of the whole.

Chapter 8: Musings on the Mystics’ God  in  God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book Chapter by David P. Polk

The prevailing understanding of the subordination of Love under the dominant role of divine Power that we have been encountering in the history of western Christian thought not only failed to resolve what the philosopher Leibniz termed the “theodicy” problem but, in fact, explicitly gave rise to it. It is precisely in the context of …

Chapter 9: Challenges to an Unchanging God  in  God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book Chapter by David P. Polk

J. K. MOZLEY’S SURPRISING DISCOVERY The earliest direct attack on the Augustinian synthesis of Christian theism is to be found in those bold individuals who dared to question the doctrine of divine immutability. That underlies pretty much everything else that followed. In the early 1920s, leaders in the Church of England asked one of their …

Emerging God

Article by Philip Clayton

Theologians are paying attention to strange recommendations about theology from financier John Templeton — and not just because Templeton has the resources of a large foundation behind his ideas. Templeton is interested in “spiritual information,” or as Christians might express it, information about God and God’s actions in the world. His controversial idea is to …

Empiricism and Process Theology: God Is What God Does

Article by David Miller

In 1932 The Christian Century published for 25 weeks a series of articles on empirical theology, with disclaimers by a cheerful atheist, Max Otto. The discussions on “Is There a God?” were by Douglas Clyde Macintosh and Henry Nelson Wieman. Otto made positive statements about the nonexistence of God, and the two theists criticized each …

God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book by David P. Polk

(ENTIRE BOOK) The path that through the centuries led Christian theology away from the dynamic and interactive God of the biblical writings to the immutable deity of classical theologians also involved a de-emphasis upon divine love in favor of divine power. David Polk traces this path with great care in remarkably accessible language, showing how at numerous points the ideas of creative thinkers, pointing to a better way, were largely ignored. With equal care and lucidity, Polk traces the eventual turn, still in progress, toward a new understanding that recovers what was lost and provides the groundwork for a creative resolution to age-old theological conundrums appropriate to our contemporary situation. Concluding with a resolution of the love-power question through a concept of empowering love, the book makes an important contribution to contemporary theological reflection. I can heartily recommend it not only as a textbook for college and seminary students but also as material for advanced-level adult study groups in local churches. It is not an easy task to speak to such a wide spectrum of persons, and we should be grateful to Polk for having done so.
~Russell Pregeant, Professor of Religion and Philosophy and Chaplain, Emeritus, Curry College

God Within Process

Book by Eulalio R. Baltazar

(ENTIRE BOOK) Process theology applied to the problem of God and unbelief. Modern man can no longer go along with the idea that to have faith, one has to abandon the historical, secular and earthly — that, in effect, he has to surrender his very humanity.

Introduction  in  God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum

Book Chapter by David P. Polk

I begin at Dachau. At Buchenwald. Bergen-Belsen. Auschwitz. Anne Frank, who did not make it home. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, executed days before the liberation. Elie Wiesel’s father. So many millions more. The classical Christian synthesis of the power of God and the love of God—forged in those formative years of contact with Greek philosophy, hammered out …

Introduction  in  God Within Process

Book Chapter by Eulalio R. Baltazar

The application of process philosophy accomplishes three things which the author considers necessary to make theology relevant today: (1) it reconciles theology with the scientific world, (2) it reconciles immanence and transcendence, and (3) it makes theological talk relevant.

Preface  in  Becoming and Belonging

Book Chapter by Norman Pittenger

To exist as human is to exist as an instance of “becoming” or developing (for better or worse) and also to belong with others of our kind in a great enterprise to which each one of us makes her or his contribution, for good or for ill.

Preface  in  What Is Process Theology?

Book Chapter by Robert B. Mellert

Few libraries had any books on Whiteheadian thought in 1947 when he died. Today libraries of all sorts have shelves laden with books trying to explain, interpret and apply his thinking, but these authors are inclined to talk to each other. The author attempts to make process thought understandable to the rest of us.

Process Theology

Article by John B. Cobb, Jr.

                                                                                                                               l. The Origins of Process Theology             Most theology in the United States has been imported from Europe, sometimes from Great Britain, but more often from the continent.  However, from time to time indigenous movements have developed.  Jonathan Edwards in the eighteenth century established the New England theology, closely related to the Great …

“If I saw farther than others, it is because I stood on the shoulders of giants.” In this retrospective, Charles Hartshorne reflects on how Newton’s famous saying has played out in his own life’s work.

The Contributors  in  Process Philosophy and Christian Thought

Book Chapter by Delwin Brown, Ralph James, Gene Reeves (eds.)

The Contributors George Allan holds degrees from Union Theological Seminary, New York, and Yale University. He is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Dickinson College. Delwin Brown holds degrees from Union Theological Seminary, New York, and Claremont Graduate School. He is Associate Professor of Philosophy and Religion at Anderson College, and Lecturer in Philosophy of Religion …