A Critique of Process Theodicy from an African Perspective

Article by Thomas H. Graves

Introduction For several years I have been teaching a course on the problem of evil to seminary students using texts such as Hick’s Evil and the God of Love, Griffin’s God, Power, and Evil, and Davis’ Encountering Evil. Students responded well to the class lectures which drew heavily upon process thought in dealing with the …

A Dialogue on Bergson

Article by Randall E. Auxier

The following dialogue took place on April 22, 1993 at the meeting of The Society for the Philosophy of Creativity (SPC) mentioned in the introduction to this focus section. As is usual for an SPC meeting, the dialogue was taped for the SPC archive at the Morris Library at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. The full …

A Mathematical Root of Whitehead’s Cosmological Thought

Article by Robert Andrew Ariel

Whitehead’s thought covered vast areas of learning in diverse fields. In each of the areas of mathematical logic, the philosophy of science, and cosmology, his output was prodigious. However, the mere fact that we assign different names to these different branches of learning ought not to lead us to think that they were separated in …

A Monistic Interpretation of Whitehead’s Creativity

Article by John R. Wilcox

Whitehead’s creativity often has been interpreted as existing only pluralistically, that is, existing only as numerically many in the plurality of actual entities by virtue of which it is actualized. Apart from its existence in the plurality, it has been thought to have absolutely no ontological status whatsoever. The object of this essay is to …

A Political Vision for the Organic Model

Article by Robert W. Hoffert

Considerable effort has been extended to demonstrate the inclusiveness of the Whiteheadian metaphysical stance. The appropriateness of this philosophical vision has been extensively explored within the domains of the natural sciences, mathematics, the social sciences (particularly. sociology and psychology), aesthetics and theology. Perhaps there is no primary dimension of human experience and reflection which has …

A Process View of the Flesh: Whitehead and Merleau-Ponty

Article by William S. Hamrick

Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961) was one of the most gifted and original 20th-century French philosophers. His phenomenology of perception and the body led him to explore widely, and deeply, history, political life, art, language, and the social sciences. Before his untimely death, he began to work out an ontology of Nature which he left behind in …

A Psychologist’s Philosophy Evaluated After Fifty Years: Troland’s Psychical Monism

Article by Charles Hartshorne

[Editor’s note: Leonard Thompson Troland (1889-1932) received the Ph.D. at Harvard in 1916 and taught there until his death. In addition to the work mentioned in Hartshorne’s opening paragraph, Troland was co-author (with Daniel F. Comstock) of The Nature of Matter and Electricity (1917), and author of The Present Status of Visual Science (1922), The …

A Resonance Model for Revelation

Article by Jerry D. Korsmeyer

Modern theologians, in keeping with recent biblical scholarship and an existential self-understanding, view revelation as a personal union in knowledge between God and a participating subject. The union is initiated by God but requires an individual response. They have difficulty, however, in relating such views to their metaphysical systems. This essay proposes a process model …

A Response to Joseph Bracken’s "Prehending God in and through the World"

Article by Paul Lewis Cecil

In "Prehending God in and through the World" (Process Studies 29.1) Joseph Bracken comments on the recent discussion concerning the means by which finite actual entities might be able to prehend God. In this response my aim is not to add to the specifics of that debate, but rather to focus on aspects of Bracken’s …

A Thesis Concerning Truth

Article by Robert Neville

The problematic nature of truth stands at the center of an array of philosophic issues for our time. To one side lie questions about reality. To another side lie questions about the nature of interpretation. To yet another side, or perhaps underneath all these issues, lie the questions of value: whether reality exhibits worth independent …

A Whiteheadian Chaosmos: Process Philosophy from a Deleuzean Perspective

Article by Tim Clark

I. Introduction The philosophy of Gilles Deleuze is often classified, in the Anglophone world at least, under the heading “poststructuralist.”1 While there may be some justification for this categorization, it nevertheless fails to capture the theoretical scope and philosophical ambition of what is perhaps the most important of Deleuze’s works: Difference and Repetition (1968). It …

A Whiteheadian Reflection on Subjective Immortality

Article by Lewis S. Ford and Marjorie Suchocki

Death and immortality, taken together, form a pervasive theme in Whitehead’s metaphysics. Death does not simply happen once in a lifetime, for this loss of one’s own subjectivity is a perpetual occurrence, from moment to moment. Subjectivity is identified with present immediacy, which is always fading into the past. With the attainment of its own …

Actuality, Possibility, and Theodicy: A Response to Nelson Pike

Article by David Ray Griffin

 I appreciate Professor Pike’s lengthy critique of a central chapter of my book, God, Power and Evil: A Process Theodicy (henceforth GPE) and the invitation by the editor of Process Studies to respond to it. Of the numerous issues his critique raises, I will respond to those which seem most important. Theodicy as Hypothesis Pike’s …

Added on Like Dome and Spire — Wieman’s Later Critique of Whitehead

Article by C. Robert Mesle

In “Sharing A Vague Vision: Wieman’s Early Response to Whitehead,” I examined four central strands in Wieman’s thought which I believe can also illuminate his changing reaction to Whitehead’s thought. They form the focus of this study as well. 1. A theory of Supreme Value which, despite many changes in formulation, can always be understood …

Alfred North Whitehead’s Basic Philosophical Problem: The Development of a Relativistic Cosmology

Article by Michael Welker

 Note: this essay was translated by Eric von der Luft and Frank Eberhardt 1. The Theoretical Program: an Essay in Cosmology Without a doubt, Whitehead offers the best developed solution to his basic philosophical problem in his major work, Process and Reality. If we want to determine the direction and goal of Whitehead’s theoretical development …

Aristotelian and Whiteheadian Conceptions of Actuality: I

Article by Reto Luzius Fetz

(Note: This article is translated by James W. Felt. James W Felt S.J., is Professor of Philosophy at Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA 95053. Independently of Fetz’s book he had published in Process Studies 14/4 (Winter 1985) an essay along some of the same lines: Whitehead’s Misinterpretation of ‘Substance’ in Aristotle."} (*This is Section …

Aristotelian and Whiteheadian Conceptions of Actuality: II

Article by Reto Luzius Fetz

(Note:  This essay was translated by James W Felt S.J., Professor of Philosophy at Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA 95053. Independently of Fetz’s book Felt published in Process Studies 14/4 (Winter 1985) an essay along some of the same lines: ‘Whitehead’s Misconception of ‘Substance’ in Aristotle.”)   Whiteheadian Process Philosophy as Transformation of the …

Bell’s Theorem and Stapp’s Revised View of Space-Time

Article by Charles Hartshorne

In much recent philosophy, including mine hitherto, space and time have been considered primarily as they appear either to common sense or to relativity physics. But quantum physics suggests important qualifications. This should not surprise us. For it is only in quantum physics that science arrives at long last at the true idea of single …

Bergson and the Calculus of Intuition: Special Focus Introduction

Article by Randall E. Auxier

The three papers and the dialogue contained in this focus section have been emerging for a number of years, since the three contributors began preparing their contributions for a gathering that took place on April 22,1993, a meeting of The Society for the Philosophy of Creativity (SPC) at the Central Division Meeting of the American …

Bergson’s Dualism in ‘Time and Free Will’

Article by Andrew C. Bjelland

The philosophical enterprise of Henri Bergson (1859-1941) forcefully illustrates his own pronouncement: a philosopher worthy of the name has never said more than a single thing” (CM 132 — OE 1350). Bergson’s own philosophical statement of “a single thing,” of course, consists in his ever renewed and ever expansive articulations of the intuition of duration. …

Broadening Care, Discerning Worth: The Environmental Contributions of Minimalist Religious Naturalis

Article by Jerome A. Stone

The purpose of this article is to show the environmental relevance of religious naturalism, in particular a minimalist version with a strong component of radical empiricism. Aldo Leopold and J. Baird Callicott, among others, speak of the need to extend our moral concern to the land or the environmental community and to develop a land …

Buchier’s Ordinal Metaphysics and Process Theology

Article by Peter H. Hare and John Ryder

Students of Whitehead can find much of interest in the metaphysics of Justus Buchler. Buchler, like Whitehead, subjects traditional substance-quality metaphysics to a devastating critique. If we regard, as surely we must, such rejection of substance-quality metaphysics as one of the distinguishing traits of process metaphysics, Buchler is a process metaphysician. But Buchler, again like …

Camus, God, and Process Thought

Article by James Goss

In a programmatic essay entitled “Whitehead Without God” (PPCT 305-28), Donald W. Sherburne sets out to demonstrate that a viable, coherent metaphysical system can be maintained by shifting the role assigned to God in Whitehead’s cosmology to other factors within that scheme. John Cobb, on the other hand, denies that “Whitehead without God” has coherency, …

Cartesian Roots of the Ontological Principle

Article by Juliana Geran Pilon

In his article “Analysis and Cultural Lag in Philosophy” (1), Hartshorne notes that Whitehead is one of few modem philosophers, particularly in the Anglo-Saxon tradition, who have taken seriously and even adopted many tenets of classical philosophy. Whitehead is free from “cultural lag” — that is, he, “far more than most recent writers, [is] acquainted …

Causality, Chaos, and Consciousness: Steps Toward a Normative Cosmological Principle in an Evolving

Article by A. Karim Ahmed

The intent of this paper is to present a conceptual model of a physical and biological universe in a state of constant change and evolution, based on three principal ideas: (a) neo-Aristotelian notions of reciprocal causality, (b) chaotic dynamics and contingencies of self-organizing systems, and (c) emergence of consciousness and sense of moral purpose in …

Charles Hartshorne and the Ontological Argument

Article by Eugene H. Peters

Charles Hartshorne believes that the ontological argument forces on us the disjunction, either “God exists” is true necessarily or “God exists” is false necessarily. This, he holds, is simply a logical extension of what Anselm discovered, for, as Anselm saw, God cannot be understood in the imperfect mode of contingency, whether as existing or not. …

Charles Hartshorne on Metaphilosophy, Person and Immortality, and Other Issues

Article by John Kennedy and Piotr Gutowski

Charles Hartshorne was born in June 1897. In a lifetime which spans the best part of a century, he has been a prolific writer on topics ranging from neoclassical theism, the ontological argument for the existence of God, and philosophical psychology, to aesthetics, pacifism, and ornithology. It is with the first two areas that he …

Christology Reconsidered: John Cobb’s ‘Christ in a Pluralistic Age’

Article by Schubert M. Ogden

Readers familiar with John Cobb’s many theological writings will know that he has already contributed a number of essays on the subject of Christology. Christ in a Pluralistic Age (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1975) significantly adds to this number, not by being, as he explains, a full-fledged Christology,” but by expressing the results of a …

Complementarity, Bell’s Theorem, and the Framework of Process Metaphysics

Article by Henry J. Folse, Jr.

Throughout the last fifty years various philosophers and physicists have attempted to assess the extent of agreement between the conception of physical reality within the framework of process philosophy and the character of the physical world described by quantum theory.1 Recently this line of inquiry has been given new life by the discovery of Bell’s …

Confessional Postmodernism and the Process-Relational Vision

Article by Leslie A. Muray

More than anyone, Stanley Hauerwas has been responsible for the recovery of the tradition of character and virtue in theological ethics during the last fifteen years. His thought has been a response to what he sees as the inadequacies and devastating consequences of modernism, particularly in its liberal form. There is much in his work …

Consciousness in Satisfaction as the Prereflective Cogito

Article by Stefan Schindler

In his article "A Suggestion on ‘Consciousness’ in Process and Reality" (PS 3:41), John Bennett argues that there can be consciousness in the satisfaction of an actual entity, even though there cannot be consciousness of that satisfaction. In support of this claim, I suggest we may look to Jean-Paul Sartre for a partial answer to …

Continuity, Possibility, and Omniscience: A Contrasting View

Article by James A. Keller

In a recent article in Process Studies, Richard Creel discusses the idea that the realm of possibility is a continuum and the implications of this idea for our understanding of God’s omniscience (PS 12:209-31). Although he agrees that the realm of possibility does form a continuum (or perhaps several continua), he nevertheless believes that it …

Cosmic Epochs and the Scope of Scientific Laws

Article by Tom L. Beauchamp

The author examines Whitehead’s view that scientific laws state principles which are immanent in nature but which evolve concurrently with novel changes in the entities actually constituting the universe.. According to Whitehead, scientific laws state principles which are immanent in nature but which evolve concurrently with novel changes in the entities actually constituting the universe.1 …

Critiquing Codependence Theory and Reimaging Psychotherapy: A Process — Relational Exploration

Article by Mary Elizabeth Moore

The reconstruction of psychotherapy is a great challenge, especially in the face of postmodern impulses to deconstruct concepts and theories that have been taken for granted for many decades.1 Of course, psychologists and therapists continually address this challenge, but human needs for healing continue, even while people raise foundational questions. With simultaneous pressures to reform …

Croce and Whitehead On Concrescence

Article by George Allan

  Benedetto Croce seems not to have read the works of his slightly older contemporary, Alfred North Whitehead; nor vice versa. The neo-idealist vocabulary of the Italian philosopher, in comparison to the empiricist and often scientific vocabulary of Whitehead, may have contributed to this mutual disregard. But beneath the language differences there are striking similarities …

David Pailin’s Theology of Divine Action

Article by Darren J.N. Middleton

Most process-relational theologians wish to claim that God ‘acts’ in the world by offering context-dependent vocations and persuasions. David Pailin, Britain’s foremost exponent of process-relational thought, has recently sought to avoid the traditional ‘aim and lure’ language by speaking of divine agency as a general teleological purpose: a drive or intentional cosmic urge within the …

Decentering Whitehead

Article by Donald W. Sherburne

The subtitle of this special issue of Process Studies, “Process Thought in a New Key,” derived as it was from Susanne Langer’s elegant title Philosophy in a New Key, turned out to have a commemorative significance that was not originally in the minds of those who heartily applauded George Lucas’ selection, in 1984, of that …

Deficiencies in Whitehead’s Philosophy

Article by Archie J. Bahm

  The present article is a comparative study of two process philosophies, the Philosophy of Organism and the philosophy of Organicism. It is designed to serve three stated purposes of Process Studies, the first giving primary emphasis to Whitehead’s thought, the second including other process philosophies, and the third inviting “radical critiques of process thought.” …

Denis Hurtubise on Ford and the "Traditional" Interpretation

Article by John B. Cobb, Jr.

Dennis Hurtubise (Process Studies 29.1) has provided a helpful and accurate summary of Ford’s findings on the latest stage of Whitehead’s thinking in Process and Reality. His thesis is that Ford’s work does not offer the support to the "traditional" interpretation that Ford himself suggests. Chiefly, this means that passages traditional interpreters have employed to …

Dipolar Theism: Psychological Considerations

Article by John F. Haught

Concepts are always somehow derivative from and accompanied by images. Even the most abstract thought is orchestrated by the imagination. For we cannot think at all without planting our minds against the backdrop of perceptual, visual, or imagined structures. Aquinas’ “conversio ad phantasmata” is a condition of human thought. At the same time, however, we …

Disassembling the Mantra: Part/Whole Equivocation in the Category of the Ultimate

Article by Duane Voskuil

1. The Issue and Some Definitions "The many become one and are increased by one" (Process 21) is a formulation of Alfred North Whitehead’s Category of the Ultimate so well-known it could be a mantra. Charles Hartshorne held it to be Whitehead’s most important insight. Yet "become" in this expression can mean either (1) the …

Disconfirmation of Whitehead’s Relativity Theory — A Critical Reply

Article by Dean R. Fowler

Robert Andrew Ariel has presented a concise and simplified account of Clifford Will’s work “disproving” Whitehead’s theory of relativity. It is an accurate presentation of that work as well as of Will’s interpretation of Whitehead’s theory. However, Ariel’s article lacks both a critical evaluation of Will’s “empirical test” and a critical understanding of Whitehead’s theory. …

Discussion of Palmyre M.F. Oomen’s Recent Essays in Process Studies

Article by Duane Voskuil

I. Oomen’s Proposal Palmyre Oomen proposes to answer how God can be one actual entity, one subject primordially and forever, and still (1) continuously integrate multiple prehensions of the world successively, and (2) continuously present data for the world to prehend (PS27 108-133). Her answer hinges on attributing to God (a) one satisfaction which remains …

Discussion Upon Fundamental Principles of Education (1919)

Article by Alfred North Whitehead

[Several years ago, in the course of a three-way correspondence on Whitehead’s educational theory, Victor Lowe directed Brian Hendley’s and my attention to a one-page summary of a 1919 lecture on education by Whitehead. It was a discussion of fundamental principles of education: “2. Discussion Upon Fundamental Principles in Education, opened by Professor A. N. …

Diverse Currents in Whitehead’s View of Time

Article by Jerome Ashmore

  Whitehead’s view of time is multilateral, intricate, and finely drawn. It abounds in unique conceptions and undergoes considerable metamorphosis, starting as an epistemological realism and culminating in a philosophy of organism. But as a whole it may be characterized as naturalistic. At least there is no rejection or amendment of the early declaration that …

Divine Omnipotence: Plantinga vs. Griffin

Article by David and Randall Basinger

The God of classical theism is a being who is, in principle, ontologically independent from the world. In contrast, the God of process theism exists in an ontologically interdependent, reciprocal relationship with the world. The classical God creates ex nihilo; within process theism creation ex nihilo is denied. It should not be surprising, accordingly, that …

Does Omniscience Imply Foreknowledge? Craig on Hartshorne

Article by Donald Wayne Viney

One of the ideas for which Charles Hartshorne is known is that God is omniscient but does not have absolute foreknowledge. In several recent works, William Lane Craig argues that there is nothing to commend Hartshorne’s view, that there are positive arguments against it, and that absurd consequences follow from it (PT 103; PS 16:201; …

Energy-Events and Fields

Article by Joseph A. Bracken, S.J.

By general agreement among process-oriented thinkers, Whiteheadian metaphysics is considered to be an event-ontology rather than a substance-ontology. That is, the building-blocks of reality are events, not things. Events do not happen to already existing things or persons, as in Aristotelian metaphysics. Rather, a complex set of events constitutes what in common sense language would …

Eros and Agape in Creative Evolution: A Peircean Insight

Article by Carl R. Hausman

Much of what Peirce has to say throughout his published papers is pertinent to a philosophical perspective on the problems of creativity. However, the introduction of the notion of agape in his speculations about evolution is of particular importance to anyone who has thought seriously about those problems. His thoughts on the special role of …

Error in Causal Efficacy

Article by Robert H. Kimball

Whitehead’s theory of perception, though undoubtedly bold and original, and consequently of considerable philosophical interest, nevertheless suffers from debilitating flaws.1 So I argued in “The Incoherence of Whitehead’s Theory of Perception” (PS 9), which David 1-lildebrand criticized in “Kimball on Whitehead on Perception” (PS 22).2 In this paper I offer new reasons to doubt the …

Evolutionary Futurism in Stapledon’s ‘Star Maker’

Article by Susan A. Anderson

W. Olaf Stapledon, Ph.D. (1886-1950), a British philosopher and writer of science fiction, combines his interests in philosophy and fiction with an humanitarian concern for the future of mankind in his major science fiction novel, Star Maker (1937). In the preface Stapledon states that he is writing out of a feeling of impending crisis. Seeing …

Evolutionist Theories and Whitehead’s Philosophy

Article by George R. Lucas, Jr.

It is often tacitly assumed without much debate that Whitehead’s metaphysics constitutes a species of process philosophy compatible in the main with older varieties of process metaphysics inspired by various evolutionist theories. The influence of these older evolutionary cosmologies on Whitehead’s thought, moreover, is never carefully examined so much as it is presupposed.1 Against such …

Experience and Philosophy: A Review of Hartshorne’s Creative Synthesis and Philosophic Method

Article by Robert Neville

I. Hartshorne’s Achievement The twentieth century has not been graced with many complete philosophies. In Creative Synthesis and Philosophic Method Charles Hartshorne demonstrates that his is among the few.1 Of course, completeness in a philosophy is relative to what the philosophy says it should contain. Hartshorne himself has said on many occasions that the problem …

Explanation and Natural Philosophy: Or, The Rationalization of Mysticism

Article by Murray Code

Every natural philosophy that aims to get something right about the world sooner or later comes up against a problem that Kant believed he had resolved when he distinguished between those concepts that he calls conceptus ratiocinati (“rightly inferred concepts”) and those that he calls conceptus ratiocinantes (“pseudo-rational concepts”) (GPR 309). But his failure to …

Faith and Justice: A New Synthesis? The Interface of Process and Liberation Theologies

Article by Joseph A. Bracken, S.J.

Commitment to change without abandonment of the cultural achievements of the past seems to be characteristic of much of contemporary theology. Two such schools of thought have been North American process theology based on the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead and liberation theology which originated in the struggles of Third World peoples for economic, political, …

Feeling as a Metaphysical Category: Hartshorne from an Analytical View

Article by L. Bryant Keeling

Charles Hartshorne shares with most other metaphysically oriented philosophers a strong drive toward the general. Many people seem to have this drive to some degree. They will seek to understand some object or phenomenon by finding out the general class of things to which it belongs. If they are curious about what monotremes are or …

Feminist Concerns and Whitehead’s Theory of Perception

Article by Marilyn Thie

Feminists and nonfeminists alike have recognized that feminist theory is without a philosophical home. This is true in two senses. First, feminism has not yet generated either a metaphysical System or, more broadly, an independent philosophical framework. Second, many feminists are critical of using established philosophical systems to articulate the experience of women on the …

Feminist Separatism — The Dynamics of Self-Creation

Article by L. J. "Tess" Tessier

In responding to this article, I wish first to make my own perspective clear. I am not a Whiteheadian scholar, and my limited understanding of process thought has been developed primarily through contact with feminist scholars writing from that perspective. I bring to this issue of relatedness and separatism a blending of my own particular …

Foreword To the Newly Reprinted British Edition of Science and the Modern World

Article by Robert M. Young

It is a commonplace of modern science that facts are one thing and values quite another, that we can rely on objective scientific knowledge, while subjective metaphysical thinking (the logical positivists would say) is dubious and to be avoided whenever possible. Indeed, it is an assumption of our world view that progress consists in the …

From Criticism to Mutual Transformation? The Dialogue Between Process and Evangelical Theologies

Article by John Culp

  I. Background of the Dialogue between Process Thinkers and Evangelicals The publication of Pinnock’s Theological Crossfire (1990) signaled a significant change in the tenor of evangelical responses to process thought. In effect, it initiated a third phase of the process/evangelical dialogue. Cobb and Pinnock’s Searching for An Adequate God (2000) and Stone and Oord’s …

From Lorenzen Through Husserl to Whitehead

Article by Hiroshi Endo

My philosophical background which drives me today to metaphysical speculation seems to be rooted in my past access to: (I) the theories of proto-logic and proto-mathematics in the Erlangen school and (2) the intuitionistic, constructivistic approach to the logical foundations of mathematics, which became one of the post-Husserlian phenomenological movements. Paul Lorenzen, founder of the …

From Mimesis to Kinesis: The Aristotelian Dramatic Matrix, Psychoanalysis, and Some Recent Alternati

Article by Ekbert Faas

Freud’s mind was tragically oriented . . . there’s always at the end of the vision that vacant spot where he knows he’s defeated, but he wants then to be defeated with dignity. Do you see? He can’t cure everybody. He may not even have an answer, but, by God, he’s going to try with …

Genetic and Coordinate Division Correlated

Article by Lewis S. Ford

Sensing many of the same difficulties Neville has raised against my temporalistic interpretation of genetic successiveness, John Cobb has proposed this constructive alternative: In addition to temporal successiveness, Whitehead conceives of another order of successiveness, which he calls genetic or microcosmic. This is a successiveness that becomes real only when the succession is completed. But …

Genetic Succession, Time, and Becoming

Article by Robert Neville

Whether Whitehead’s cosmology is a plausible and useful view of the world depends in large measure on the cogency of his distinction between genetic and coordinate divisions of actual occasions. Philosophically, this distinction is his way of reconciling the claims of inner subjective life with those of objective experience and knowledge. It has specific application, …

God and Creativity: A Revisionist Proposal within a Whiteheadian Context

Article by Stephen T. Franklin

In Alfred North Whitehead’s metaphysical system, God is not the source of creativity and, in that sense, not the Creator-God. For Whitehead, the relation of creativity to God has two sides. On the one hand, he designed his doctrine of creativity to eliminate the need for a Creator-God. Whitehead argued instead that each actual entity …

God as Composer-Director, Enjoyer, and, in a Sense, Player of the Cosmic Drama

Article by Charles Hartshorne

[Editor’s note: Hartshorne gave me a copy of this paper just before I heard him present it at Central State University in Edmond, Oklahoma on April 7, 1987. A discussion with the audience followed the presentation of the paper, a transcript of which — from a video-tape — is appended here. A delightful coincidence is …

God as Thelarrhenic

Article by Carl S. Keener

Recent papers on process thought and feminism have used the term “androgynous to depict the range of maleness/femaleness expressed in both humans and God.1 In a similar sense, “gynandrous” has been proposed.2 To be sure, the aim is to capture, by means of an appropriate term, the rich texture of human differences, that one is …

God’s Nescience of Future Contingents: A Nineteenth-Century Theory

Article by William McGuire King

"All theology and commentaries and exegesis," remarked Lorenzo Dow McCabe, must be "completely revolutionized in their basal facts and principles." The "philosophical necessities of the age," including the testimony of universal religious experience, and "the varied and vast signification of divine revelation" demand it (DN 263). Yet the progress of theological reflection seemed to McCabe …

Happiness and the Public World: Beyond Political Liberalism

Article by Franklin I. Gamwell

In recent years, many political thinkers have argued that political liberalism is impoverished, so that our political future is better served by efforts to transcend that tradition. Frequently, the titles of their books express this general claim, e.g., Theodore J. Lowi’s The End of Liberalism (EL), Robert Paul Wolfe’s The Poverty of Liberalism (PL), and …

Hartshorne and the Problem of Personal Identity

Article by Albert Shalom and John Robertson

  Shalom: According to Hartshorne, “to be” is “to create” (CSPM 1). Upon this basis he formulates an entire metaphysics which characterizes the person (not the word “person”) as “a kind of low-level universal” (CSPM 73). Thus the personal identity of Peter or Joan is an abstraction relatively to “the momentary states or events in …

Hartshorne and Utilitarianism: A Response to Moskop

Article by Thomas A. Nairn

Within the past decade, there have been several attempts to categorize ethical systems arising from process metaphysics in their relation to ethical theory in general. Although many concur in categorizing any ethical system based on process metaphysics as teleological or consequentialist, recent writings have gone beyond this, attempting to demonstrate the affinity between process ethics …

Hartshorne on Actuality

Article by Eugene H. Peters

Charles Hartshorne holds that concrete reality is actuality and that actuality is definite or determinate.1 Does he mean only that definiteness or determinateness is a distinguishing mark of concrete reality? No, Hartshorne’s position is much stronger than this. He wishes to identify determinateness with actuality: fully determinate particularized quality is actuality (see TDG 193). As …

Hartshorne on Personal Identity: A Personalistic Critique

Article by Peter A. Bertocci

Before examining Professor Hartshorne’s view of personal identity, I wish to express my esteem for him and my gratitude for his work. I had already caught the general outline of the view that process is reality in Whitehead’s class in cosmologies in 1931-32. My revered teacher, Edgar S. Brightman, had even before this made me …

Hartshorne, God and Metaphysics: How the Cosmically Inclusive Personal Nexus and the World Interact

Article by Duane Voskuil

I. Introduction Charles Hartshorne introduced me to process philosophy as a graduate student at Emory University in 1960. Not until asking William A. Christian some years later why in his book (IWM) he hadn’t considered Whitehead might be thinking of God as a personal series did I realize how deeply Hartshorne had influenced my interpretation …

Hartshorne’s Neoclassical Theism and Black Theology

Article by Theodore Walker, Jr.

In this essay I shall offer some critical reflection upon Charles Hartshorne’s neoclassical conception of God from the perspective of black theology. I. Black Theology and Classical Theism The term “black theology” is here used to refer primarily to those contemporary African-American and native African systematic theologies which understand that the Christian witness to the …

Historical Process Theology: A Field in a Map of Thought

Article by Willliam Dean

Just as Margaret Fuller, at the risk of grandiosity, once decided to "accept the universe," process theologians and philosophers have decided, with the same risk, to "accept history;" When informed of Fuller’s decision, Thomas Carlyle said, "By God! she’d better." Equally but without Carlyle’s dismissive irreverence, process theologians decided that they had better accept history. …

Human Coercion: A Fly in the Process Ointment?

Article by David Basinger

‘Coercion’ is a somewhat ambiguous term within process theology. In their standard metaphysical discussions, process theists usually define coercive power as the power to bring it about that another entity is totally devoid of any degree of self-determination. But they uniformly agree that every entity always possesses some degree of self-determination (freedom). Thus, process theists …

I’ve Known Rivers: Black Theology’s Response to Process Theology

Article by Thandeka

William R. Jones, Theodore Walker and Henry James Young share a worldview which is not readily apparent. This essay will identify their common vision and demonstrate that much of their vision cannot be interpreted by process categories. Most process theologians are unaware of this worldview. Reminiscent of Gertrude Stein’s comment about Oakland, many process theologians …

Imaginative Generalization as Epogoge

Article by Gregory Reichberg

(I am grateful to Professors Thomas Flynn, George Lucas, Jr., and Richard Patterson for helpful comments on earlier versions of this paper.) Since the publication of Karl Popper’s The Logic of Scientific Discovery, it has become commonplace in Anglo-American philosophy to cast a disparaging eye on induction. Much of the contemporary interpretations of science based …

In Critique of Whitehead 1

Article by Reto Luzius Fetz

 (Note: this essay was translated by James W. Felt. James W Felt is Professor of Philosophy at Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA 95053. Independently of Fetz’s book he had published in Process Studies 14/4 (Winter 1985) an essay along some of the same lines: “Whitehead’s Misconception of ‘Substance’ in Aristotle.”)   At the conclusion …

Intentionality and Prehension

Article by Nicholas F. Gier

This is a programmatic essay for a comprehensive comparative analysis of phenomenology and process philosophy.1 The central concern of this project is the relationship between the major doctrines of these two philosophies: intentionality and prehension. In his “analytic phenomenology” Stephen A. Erickson has ably established a solid relationship between Heidegger’s version of intentionality and the …

Interpoints: A Model for Divine Spacetime

Article by Margaret O'Rourke Boyle

Where is God? Process theologians debating God’s relation to space-time have focused on the theories of relativity and regional inclusion, grounding their speculation in Whitehead’s escape from traditional theism to Process and Reality.1 That extended essay on organic cosmology with its interpretation of “God and the World” is an obvious quarry for ideas. Yet Whitehead’s …

Is Divine Relativity Possible? Charles Hartshorne on God’s Sympathy with the World

Article by Henry Simoni-Wastila

Hartshorne’s theory of divine relativity asserts that God is thoroughly related to human experience through a process of the feeling of feeling.1 Divine relativity means just that: “In the depths of their hearts all creatures . . . defer to God because they sense him as the one who alone is adequately moved by what …

Is the Past Finite? On Craig’s Kalam Argument

Article by George W. Shields

William Lane Craig has authored a well-informed historical account and sophisticated modern defense of the cosmological argument for God’s existence which has its origin in the medieval Arabic practitioners of kalam (sometimes translated ‘scholastic theology’). The work (K) should be of special interest to process thinkers since the kalam cosmological argument challenges an important tenet …

Justice and Class Struggle: A Challenge for Process Theology

Article by George V. Pixley

True religion, according to the Biblical literature, is elusive. No sacred institution can assure its presence. A persistent problem is the tendency of the Word of God to harden into a parody of itself; the prohibition of images in the decalogue is, according to the Deuteronomic commentator (Dt. 4), laid down lest Israel be lulled …

Justus Buchler: Nature, Power, and Prospect

Article by Sidney Gelber

The work of Justus Buchler is systematic philosophy akin to that of Aristotle, Spinoza, Whitehead, and Hegel. By systematic we mean not that some traditional set of problems has been covered, but rather that the philosophical product is the deliberate and methodic interrelation of its constituents, viz., its concepts, categories, and principles in a structure …

Kaufman on Kaplan and Process Theology: A Post-Positivist Perspective

Article by H. A. Alexander

When I was a student at the Hebrew University, Mordecai Kaplan lived in Jerusalem. Always interested in young people, it was his custom to host occasional evenings in his living room with university students. The discussions would meander over a variety of contemporary Jewish issues but in some way always return to some central theme …

Kimball on Whitehead and Perception

Article by David L. Hildebrand

In “The Incoherence of Whitehead’s Theory of Perception” (PS 9:94-104), Robert H. Kimball tries to show how Alfred North Whitehead’s account of perception is a failed attempt to reconcile two traditional theories of perception: phenomenological (or sense-data) theory and causal (or physiological) theory. Whitehead fails, Kimball argues, in two main ways. First because his notion …

Kirkpatrick on Subjective Becoming

Article by Lewis S. Ford

Frank Kirkpatrick’s “Subjective Becoming: An Unwarranted Abstraction?” (Ps. 3:15-26) portrays the Whiteheadian problematic with an impressive accuracy; hence his critique deserves thoughtful response. Some Whiteheadians, I am afraid, may be tempted to evade the issue by this sort of reflection: Kirkpatrick charges, “The fundamental difficulty which the process model faces is trying to retain language …

Kraus’s Boethian Interpretation of Whitehead’s God

Article by Rem B. Edwards

In reading Elizabeth M. Kraus’s The Metaphysics of Experience, A Companion to Whitehead’s Process and Reality, I was particularly disappointed by her concluding chapter on “God and the World,” for there it becomes apparent that she has been reading Whitehead’s remarks on theological topics through the jaundiced eyes of Boethius, St. Thomas Aquinas, and classical …

Land Ethics, Animal Rights, and Process Theology

Article by Jay B. McDaniel

Traditionally many Christian theologies have recognized that humans are called by God to care for the world. Theologies of ecology emphasize that such care rightly includes among its subjects animals, plants, and the land. Philip Joranson and Ken Butigan, the editors of Cry of the Environment: Rebuilding the Christian Creation Tradition, a multi-authored theological study …

Lewis S. Ford and Traditional Interpretations of Whitehead’s Metaphysics

Article by Denis Hurtubise

In "The Approach to Whitehead: Traditional? Genetic? or Systematic?," Jorge Luis Nobo offered what is, to date, the most articulate critique of Lewis S. Ford’s genetic approach to Whitehead’s metaphysics. On the basis of some remarks made by Whitehead himself about his thought and writings, Nobo proposes to refute Ford’s claim that the views expressed …

Lewis S. Ford’s Theology: A Critical Appreciation

Article by Robert Neville

Lewis Ford stands at the head of the line of many distinguished philosophical theologians who find creative inspiration in the work of Alfred North Whitehead. This is a high compliment, because that list includes such thinkers as Charles Hartshorne, Lionel Thornton, Daniel Day Williams, Norman Pittenger, William Ernest Hocking, Henry Nelson Wieman, Schubert Ogden, John …

Literary Criticism and Process Thought: Blackmur, Brooks, Sartre, and Whitehead

Article by C. Carter Colwell

Whiteheadian ontology and epistemology illuminate many areas of debate. One such area concerns critical evaluation of literature, particularly when the standards involved have differing philosophical implications. The three critics R. P. Blackmur, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Cleanth Brooks, although varying in the explicitness with which they affirm the criteria and their philosophical bases, all make value …

Logic and the Metaphysics of Hegel and Whitehead

Article by Charles Nussbaum

The aim of this essay is to raise some questions concerning the relation between logic and metaphysics in the philosophies of Hegel and Whitehead. Of paramount importance to the Hegelian perspective on this relation is the well-known distinction between understanding and reason as two levels of thinking, for involved in this distinction is the view …

Materialist and Panexperientialist Physician: A Critique of Jaegwon Kim’s Supervenience and Mind

Article by David Ray Griffin

Since the 1970s, the relation of the mind to the body has increasingly been discussed in the philosophical community in terms of “supervenience.” This term, which has been closely related to physicalist views, is a variant on the older concept of “emergence.” The use of this new term, however, has not brought with it a …

Matthew’s ‘Undercurrent’ and Ogden’s Christology

Article by Russell Pregeant

“O man, how true are thine instincts, how over-hasty thine interpretations of them!” — Matthew Arnold Schubert Ogden’s proposal, that Bultmann’s demythologizing project be carried to its logical conclusion and applied to the Christology of the New Testament, has been attacked from several perspectives, among them Heideggerian existentialism and the process perspective Ogden himself shares. …

Mental Phenomena as Causal Determinants in Brain Functions

Article by H. W. Sperry

Editor’s Note: Although R. W. Sperry does not write from the perspective of process philosophy, his research on brain functions has led him to an emergent, interactionist view of mental phenomena which is highly congenial to Whitehead and Hartshorne. In April, 1974, and February, 1975, he has discussed these views in meetings sponsored by the …

Metaphors as Imaginative Propositions

Article by D. Lynn Holt

Contemporary language theorists have isolated several philosophically provocative linguistic components, portions of language which are logically and/or epistemologically problematic. One such category is that of metaphorical expression. Philosophers of language, specifically nonellipsis theorists of metaphor, have zeroed in on a type of expression they refer to as “vital” or “irreducible” metaphor; i.e., metaphor that is …

Metaphysical Principles and the Category of the Ultimate

Article by Archie Graham

Whitehead’s method of the working hypothesis, according to which philosophy begins with the observation of particular experience and the tentative formulation of its general features, testifies to the fact that the Category of the Ultimate is Whitehead’s initially provisional statement of the ultimate or most general conditions for experience. These conditions are exemplified by that …

Metaphysics and Induction

Article by Gary Gutting

A view held by many contemporary metaphysicians is that the problem of induction, so much discussed by philosophers of science, arises only because of mistaken metaphysical views; in particular views (deriving from Hume) about the nature of the causal relation and/or about the internal relations among different entities.1 Contrary to this view, I will try …

Methodological Alternatives in Process Theology

Article by Delwin Brown and Sheila Davaney

Introduction The term “process theology” covers a variety of viewpoints and interests. This is true even when the term refers exclusively to contemporary Christian theologians whose thinking draws on the philosophies of Alfred North Whitehead and Charles Hartshorne. The work of these Christian process thinkers focuses variously on such topics as the question of God, …

Mill and Hartshorne

Article by John C. Moskop

Although it has been remarked that the moral philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead bears a resemblance to utilitarianism (WMP 85), it is surprising that no one, to my knowledge, has explored the nature or extent of the resemblance between process philosophy and utilitarianism. In fact, process philosophers have written relatively little about ethics in general; …

Mordecai M. Kaplan and Process Theology: Metaphysical and Pragmatic Perspectives

Article by William E. Kaufman

Mordecai M Kaplan (1881-1983), one of the major figures in contemporary Jewish thought and founder of the Reconstructionist movement in Judaism, exerted a profound impact on Jewish theology in the twentieth century.’ Kaplan’s major contribution to Jewish theology is his theory of transnaturalism. The purpose of this theory is to develop a philosophical theology that …

Mosa-Dharma and Prehension: Nagarjuna and Whitehead Compared

Article by Ryusei Takeda and John B. Cobb, Jr.

Dialog between Buddhists and Westerners moves back and forth between two levels: the conceptual and the religious, valuational, or existential. On the conceptual level Buddhists insist on nothingness while Westerners characteristically speak of being and think of things as having substantial reality. Associated with this conceptual difference are profound religious ones. However, the traditions of …

Mudddleheadedness and Simplemindedness – Whitehead and Russell

Article by George R. Lucas, Jr.

“Bertie thinks I am muddleheaded; but then I think he is simpleminded” — A N. Whitehead The title of this paper is taken from this famous viva voce remark by Whitehead. Purportedly this was the final line of Whitehead’s brief introduction of Russell during the latter’s series of William James Lectures at Harvard in 1940. …

Musings Of A Psychologist- Theologian: Reflections On The Method Of Charles Hartshorne

Article by Mary Elizabeth Moore

 (This article is a revised version of a lecture given on September 30, 1991 in Claremont, California, during a conference celebrating Charles Hartshorne and the publication of The Philosophy of Charles Hartshorne, Vol. XX in The Library of Living Philosophers Series, edited by Lewis Edwin Hahn [La Salle, IL: Open Court Press, 1991]).   What …

Narrative Teaching: An Organic Methodology

Article by Mary Elizabeth Moore

An organic philosophy calls forth an organic approach to teaching. Teaching organically certainly would require more than one educational methodology, simply to draw from the fullness of human inventiveness. The focus here, however, will be on one particular form of organic teaching that is unusually full in itself — narrative teaching. Teaching narratively calls forth …

Naturalism, Theism, and the Origin of Life

Article by Joseph E. Earley

In Warrant and Proper Function (WPF), Alvin Plantinga argues that the probability of human cognitive faculties “being reliable (producing mostly true beliefs)” must be regarded as quite low, if “metaphysical naturalism” is taken as valid and “human cognitive faculties arose by the mechanisms to which contemporary evolutionary thought directs our attention” (WPF 219). Since the …

Neville’s Critique of Hartshorne

Article by David A. Pailin

In his review article of Hartshorne’s Creative Synthesis and Philosophic Method (PS 2:49-67), Robert Neville remarks that “one of Hartshorne’s most important contributions” has been his concern to deal “with problems as formulated by public discussion, usually that of analytical philosophers.” The general effect of Neville’s review, however is to cast doubt on the justifiability …

Non-Being and Hartshorne’s Concept of God

Article by Houston Craighead

The concept of God provided in the writings of Charles Hartshorne is one of the most influential and widely discussed notions in contemporary philosophy of religion and theology. Not only is Hartshorne’s God significantly different from the traditional concept of God, but Hartshorne also provides a revised version of the ontological argument to prove this …

Nonhuman Experience: A Whiteheadian Analysis

Article by Susan Armstrong-Buck

In opposition to many Western epistemologies, Whitehead maintains that most experience is not conscious, that language, while crucial to thought, is not essential to it, and that feeling is the fundamental mode of disclosure of the world (PR 36/54). Whitehead also has a strongly empirical side, expressed in his insistence that a system of metaphysical …

Note on Whitehead and the Order of Nature

Article by Francis Seaman

The relationship between Whitehead’s concept of God and traditional religious and theological views has been much discussed, but the relationship between his account of God and his conception of the foundations of science has not. Briefly, Whitehead initially (in works published circa 1919-1924) objected to Einstein’s formulation of the theory of relativity on the grounds …

On Applying Whitehead’s First Category of Existence

Article by Joseph E. Earley

F. Bradford Wallack (ENP 7) has called for a revolution in Whitehead scholarship. She argues that it has been a serious mistake for interpreters of Whitehead "to limit the application of his basic ontological category of existence — his actual entity — to just two kinds of existents: subatomic entities, such as electrons, protons, photons …

On Behalf of the Unhappy Reader: A Response to Lee F. Werth

Article by Elizabeth M. Kraus

Werth’s attack on the tenability of Whitehead’s theory of extensive connection (PS 8:37-44) constitutes a serious challenge to the coherence of the philosophy of organism and therefore demands serious consideration. At the same time, both the attack and the doctrine attacked are so arcane and abstruse as to render them inaccessible and/or uninteresting to all …

On the Formation of Ontological Concepts: the Theories of Whitehead and Piaget

Article by Reto Luzius Fetz

Translated by Carolyn Wolf Spanier and John M. Sweeney The present paper is an attempt to investigate connections between Whitehead’s work on ontological theory and Piaget’s genetic theory of cognition. Although Whitehead’s philosophy of organism is an explicitly metaphysical theory and Piaget’s genetic theory of cognition is markedly a naturalistic theory, the first part of …

On the Unique Origin of Revelation, Religious Intuition, and Theology

Article by Roland Faber

Time and again, process theology has been accused of reducing theology to metaphysics, thereby eliminating the genuine source of theology, i.e., the experience of God’s revealing reality. In this regard, one recalls Langdon Gilkey who deplored this collapse of all problems to metaphysical problems.1 According to Gilkey, the problem with “metaphysics” occurs when it loses …

One, Two, or Three Concepts of God in Alfred North Whitehead’s Process and Reality?

Article by Denis Hurtubise

For a number of years now, a debate has been underway in the Whiteheadian academy about the method we should adopt to interpret Alfred North Whitehead’s metaphysical writings. Many specialists, if not most, contend that those writings express a single point of view, that is, the same metaphysical system. It is their claim, consequently, that …

Ontological Hermeneutics: An Overlooked Bergsonian Perspective

Article by Richard L. Brougham

Henri Bergson is credited with a pertinent critique of the mechanistic determinism usually associated with nineteenth- century classical physics. However, his depiction of the nature of things has come to be considered too unsystematic and “loose,” even by later philosophers sympathetic to his thought. He laid the foundations of what has come to be called …

Organization and Process: Systems Philosophy and Whiteheadian Metaphysics

Article by James E. Huchingson

As we approach the end of the twentieth century, it becomes both possible and appropriate to identify pathfinding figures and schools of thought which have contributed significantly to the spirit and style of the times. Since the recognition of change or process is a prominent feature of the intellectual pursuits of the century, one would …

Original Sin Revisited

Article by Marjorie Suchocki

Sin has fallen on hard times. We exist in the paradox of a time with a profound realization that our problems are systemic, far exceeding individual is-tic consent or solutions, but the fundamental approach to sin in our society remains a litany of personal failures. Yet ecological disasters, fearsome instruments of war, vast systems of …

Panpsychism and Parsimony

Article by John J. Shepherd

It is sometimes urged that Whitehead presents doctrines without giving supporting reasons. I wish here to consider one important defense of psychicalism, what might be called “the argument from parsimony,” which may be approached via some remarks of Whitehead’s on “Philosophic Method” in Adventures of Ideas. I shall argue both that the defense fails and …

Perception and Causality: Whitehead and Aristotle

Article by Shielah O'Flynn Brennan

The examination of human experience for factors which could be used to account for other natural occurrences presents itself as a normal method of procedure for one who rejects the Cartesian type of dualism. This, of course, was Whitehead’s chief approach in the establishment of his speculative cosmology. The analysis of human experience, or to …

Perception and Externality in Whitehead’s “Enquiry”

Article by Fernando R. Molina

In my judgment the grouping together of Whitehead’s Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Natural Knowledge (PNK) and The Concept of Nature (CN) by such scholars as Victor Lowe and Nathaniel Lawrence, coupled with the dramatic impact of Whitehead’s attack on theories of the bifurcation of nature in the later of the two books, has almost …

Philosophical Growth, Future Subjectivity, and David Pailin

Article by Lewis S. Ford

[Editor’s note: This response to David Pailin’s review of Ford book, Transforming Process Theism, was commissioned by the editor of Process Studies after David Pailin had written his review of Ford’s book. (see Reviews, this issue)] Transforming Process Theism examines an indispensable element in Whitehead’s thinking which apparently cannot be fully integrated with the rest. …

Philosophy After Hartshorne

Article by Donald Wayne Viney

The assessment of a philosopher’s importance by his or her contemporaries is a risky business, for future generations have a way of unmaking the judgments of their predecessors.1 Yet, by standard measures, Charles Hartshorne (1897-2000) was one of the premiere philosophers of the twentieth century. At the celebration of Hartshorne’s centenary, George R. Lucas, Jr. …

Philosophy and Classical Determinism

Article by Milic Capec and Brenton Stearns

Capek: Their Incompatibility In his article “Becoming: A Problem for Determinists?” (PS 6:237-48) J. Brenton Stearns raised some objections against the basic thesis of contemporary process philosophy according to which strict determinism, when consistently thought through, implies a complete elimination of becoming or, at best, a relegation of succession to the realm of appearances. The …

Physicalism and Panexperientialism: Response to David Ray Griffin

Article by Jaegwon Kim

In his “Materialist and Panexperientialist Physicalism” Professor David Griffin gives both a judicious and illuminating exposition and critique of the contemporary “mainstream” physicalism and a brief but clearly articulated synopsis of his own alternative approach which he calls “panexperientialism.” Although Griffin’s discussion focuses on my own work, many of his points are applicable, more or …

Points of Contact Between Process Theology and Liberation Theology in Matters of Faith and Justice

Article by John B. Cobb, Jr.

The term “liberation theology” is used in two senses. Sometimes it refers specifically to the work of Latin American theologians committed to showing how the gospel is good news for the poor. Sometimes it refers to black theology and feminist theology as well, and it can also include various Asian and African theological developments. It …

Postliterate Humanity

Article by William S. Hamrick

I borrow my title from Harvey Cox’s well known The Secular City, the aim of which was to map out and defend the relevance of religion for “the post-literate man of the electronic image” (TSC 11) whose urban, technological culture seemed to many so inhospitable for such an endeavor. Whether or not one agrees with …

Process and Generality

Article by David M. Brahinsky

Whitehead’s philosophy aims to approach the accurate expression of final generalities; his metaphysical categories are conceived as tentative formulations of the ultimate generalities. His candidate for the notion which best expresses this final or ultimate generality is “creativity.” It is the “ultimate metaphysical conception,” the “universal of universals characterizing ultimate matter of fact” (PR 31). …

Process and Religion: The History of a Tradition at Chicago

Article by Larry F. Axel

Theological inquiry in the process tradition has normally been pursued in a context of close association with developments in philosophy and the sciences. Taking its cue from Whitehead, it has been especially attentive to work in these fields that has recognized and appropriated the relational and processive nature of thought and experience. In this country, …

Process and Revolution: Hegel, Whitehead, and Liberation Theology

Article by Paul Lakeland

This paper will compare the respective potentials of the thought of Hegel and Whitehead as philosophical supports to the theology of liberation. A first section argues the need for such support, and the second part considers a recent influential reading of process theology as political theology.1 In the third section attention is directed to Hegel, …

Process Psychotherapy

Article by John B. Cobb, Jr.

I. Landing the Plane in the Field of Psychotherapy "The true method of discovery is like the flight of an aeroplane. It starts from the ground of particular observation; it makes a flight in the thin air of imaginative generalization, and it again lands for renewed observation rendered acute by rational interpretation" (Whitehead 5). Process …

Process Relational Psychotherapy: Creatively Transforming Relationships

Article by Robert Brizee

I. An Image I will present a simple and playful image which has been helpful in bridging the disciplines of philosophy, theology, and psychology. The image emerged in my professional office as I experienced counseling through the perspective of process thought. This essay describes the clinical implications of the image, suggests hypotheses growing from it, …

Process Social Philosophy: The Continuing Conversation

Article by George Allan

The four articles that follow comprise a special issue of Process Studies devoted to social philosophy. Despite their vast difference in theme, style, and metaphysical commitment, these essays share certain broad concerns that are endemic to doing process philosophy from a Whiteheadian perspective. The most basic of these is the problem of analogy. Whitehead provided …

Process Theology and Black Liberation: Testing the Whiteheadian Metaphysical Foundations

Article by Henry James Young

The testing ground of metaphysical truths lies in their applicability to what is found in practice or experience. The attempt in Whitehead’s philosophic method is to construct a metaphysical scheme that is consistent with reality. His contention is that the reality being described should not be coerced into conformity with a metaphysical scheme already constructed. …

Process Theology as Empirical, Rational, and Speculative: Some Reflections on Method

Article by David Ray Griffin

The primary purpose of this essay is to defend the “s” word — speculation. My thesis is that for Christian theology to do its job in our day it must not only seek to be both fully empirical and fully rational, but that it must also be speculative, partly because speculation is inherent to Christian …

Process Theology: Guardian of the Oppressor or Goad to the Oppressed

Article by William R. Jones

I Background and Context Several preunderstandings inform my approach and participation in this welcome dialogue between process and liberation theologians. First my understanding of the context of this journal issue. We are engaged in a self-conscious effort to enlarge the dialogue between process theology and liberation theology. This constitutes, for me, phase two of the …

Process Thought and the Spaciness of Mind

Article by Rem B. Edwards

Process thought clearly rejects Cartesian matter-mind dualism and thereby rejects the monistic alternatives of materialism and idealism which depend upon Cartesian concepts of matter and mind. There is neither any unknowable material or mental substances to which the experienceable properties of things belong and which give absolute self-identity through time, nor any enduring essences of …

Process Thought From a European Perspective 1

Article by Jan Van Der Veken

In 1924 Whitehead retired from a long and distinguished teaching career in mathematics, mathematical physics and logic, first as a Fellow at Trinity College, Cambridge (1884-1910), and subsequently at the Imperial College of Science and Technology and in the University of London. Remarkably, however, Whitehead essentially began a second career in philosophy at Harvard University …

Process Thought On the Borders Between Hermeneutics and Theology

Article by William A. Beardslee

I learned a good deal about process theology and philosophy when I was a graduate student at the University of Chicago in the late 1940’s. Also, Charles Hartshorne and later, Ivor Leclerc, were colleagues at Emory University, where I taught, for a number of years. But early in my career my own interests as a …

Process-Relational Christian Soteriology: A Response to Wheeler

Article by David Basinger

David Wheeler presents us with an interesting, thought-provoking discussion on a topic of obvious importance to any Christian. His basic objective is to correlate the “revealed and experienced Christ of the evangelicals” with the process world view in such a fashion that the evangelical perspective “might illuminate” the process world view and the process world …

Process, Creativity, and Technology: Reflections on The Uncertain Phoenix

Article by Peter Limper

In two recent works, The Uncertain Phoenix and Eros and Irony, David L. Hall presents a systematic and radical critique of the Western cultural and philosophical tradition, and (in The Uncertain Phoenix) a provocative vision of a future which might result front a movement away from certain aspects of that tradition. Hall’s perspective, with its …

Process, Time, and God

Article by Bowman L. Clarke

Whitehead is frequently characterized as holding an ontology of events. This is not an unhappy characterization, if what is meant is that all other entities can be defined, or constructed, in terms of events and their properties, especially relations. In fact, in The Concept of Nature Whitehead tells us "the final conclusion" is "that the …

Processing Towards Life

Article by L. Charles Birch

More and more, physicists dare to say that all nature is in some sense life-like, that there is no absolutely new principle of life that comes in at some point in cosmic evolution. (Charles Hartshorne, OOTM 62) Bertrand Russell said that either life is matter-like or matter is life-like. A proposition of process thought is …

Psychological Physiology From the Standpoint of a Physiological Psychologist

Article by George Wolf

  "Consciousness is a sort of public spirit among the nerve cells." — Peirce, quoted by Hartshorne I have been preoccupied for a long time with the question, "How is our conscious experience related to our bodies?" The answer I am looking for involves more than knowing what experiences are correlated with what physiological events. …

Quantum Mechanics, Local Causality, and Process Philosophy

Article by Henry Pierce Stapp

(This essay was edited by William B. Jones, who teaches philosophy at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia.) I. Science and Quantum Theory Science can be pragmatic or fundamentalistic. The aim of pragmatic science is to make predictions about what will be observed in different situations. The aim of fundamentalistic science is to understand the fundamental …

R.G.Collingwood and A.N. Whitehead on Metaphysics, History, and Cosmology

Article by Guido Vanheesvijck

Whitehead, of course, was well aware of the problem of historical knowledge, of the impossibility of “mere knowledge”, without taking into account the presuppositions or standards of the historian. But Whitehead did not dwell on it, as Collingwood did, or let it warp his overall view. (F.L.Baumer, Modern European Thought Continuity and Change in Ideas, …

Radical Relatedness and Feminist Separatism

Article by Nancy B. Howell

Is the separatism of radical feminism as “radical” as it could be? What is feminist separatism? How might Whiteheadian philosophy complement radical feminism and enhance the revolutionary promise of separatism? In light of the diversity among feminists, separatism is variously understood and occasionally carries the vagueness of an intuition rather than the precision of a …

Rationality, Contributionism, and the Value of Love: Hartshorne on Abortion

Article by Anita Miller Chancy

Abortion is a recurring theme in Charles Hartshorne’s later works. He discusses aspects of abortion in Wisdom as Moderation, (1987), Omnipotence and Other Theological Mistakes (1984), and in his autobiography, The Darkness and the Light (1990). In 1981 he published “Concerning Abortion: An Attempt at a Rational View” in The Christian Century; it drew a …

Re-Reading Science and the Modern World

Article by John B. Cobb, Jr.

I. Ford’s Contribution Lewis Ford has made many contributions to Whitehead scholarship. His founding of Process Studies and editing it for a quarter century retained for a Whiteheadian form of process thinking a visibility it would otherwise have lost in an unfavorable philosophical environment. His interactions with those who offered contributions to the journal not …

Recent Classical/Process Dialogue on God and Change

Article by Philip Clayton

Contemporary reflection on the theme of God and change is divided into two quite diverse schools or traditions. On the one hand, process philosophers have made important advances under the inspiration of the writings of Alfred North Whitehead, while on the other a group of thinkers has pursued the developmental implications of the classical Christian …

Recent Empirical Disconfirmation of Whitehead’s Relativity Theory

Article by Robert Andrew Ariel

In 1922, some nine years after Einstein had published his first paper on General Relativity, Whitehead was compelled by the differences he had with Einstein’s view to come forward with his own work, The Principle of Relativity, in which he formulated a theory of gravitation more in keeping with his own philosophical outlook. The resulting …

Regional Inclusion and Psychological Physiology

Article by John B. Cobb Jr. and Donald W. Sherburne

  Sherburne: Those who have followed our debate concerning Sherburne: "Whitehead without God" [PS 1/2 (Summer, 1971), 91-113] and "Regional Inclusion and the Extensive Continuum" [PS 2/4 (Winter, 1972), 277-95] will recall our differences concerning regional inclusion. Whitehead does not develop such a theory, but our problem is whether such a theory would be compatible …

Regional Inclusion and the Extensive Continuum

Article by John B. Cobb Jr. and Donald W. Sherburne

Cobb: It is a pleasure to debate Professor Sherburne. Not only does he take clear positions and argue for them vigorously, but also the debate makes progress! Sherburne’s rejoinder [in PS 1, 2 (Summer, 1971), 101-13] is much more sharply focused than his original essay on “Whitehead Without God.” (PPGT 305-28). It pushes more deeply …

Rejection, Influence, and Development: Hartshorne in the History of Philosophy

Article by Colin Gunton

Introduction None of us is wholly the creation of his past, but each creates something new on the basis of what he receives. This statement summarizes an important aspect of the views and teaching of Professor Hartshorne; but, interestingly, it also provides a key to the understanding of his own place in the tradition. Hartshorne …

Relativity Physics and the God of Process Philosophy

Article by Paul Fitzgerald

I Let us follow John Wilcox in defining temporalistic or process theism as any theism which portrays God as an experiencing subject, the knower of temporal processes, whose knowledge is itself subject to growth, expanding along with the growth in temporal reality which is the object of that knowledge (2:295a). Recent discussion of the bearing …

Robert Brumbaugh: Towards a Process Philosophy of Education

Article by Brian Hendley

According to Robert Brumbaugh, Whitehead’s mature philosophy has important implications for education. With his criticism of current commonsense ideas of space and time and the influence of seventeenth-century physics on twentieth-century metaphysics, Whitehead pointed the way toward a new realistic theory of education. "It is an obvious but important theme in his writings," says Brumbaugh, …

Russell, Poincaré, and Whitehead’s ‘Relational Theory of Space’

Article by Patrick J. Hurley

On April 8, 1914, A. N. Whitehead read a paper entitled “The Relational Theory of Space” to the First Congress of Mathematical Philosophy in Paris.1 A French translation of this paper was subsequently published in the Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale [23 (1916) 423-54], but the English original never appeared in print. It may …

Salvational Zionism and Religious Naturalism in the Thought of Mordecai M. Kaplan

Article by Emanuel S. Goldsmith

Among the major distinctive contributions of Mordecai M. Kaplan (1881-1983) to twentieth-century religious thought is his creative synthesis of modern Jewish nationalism with spiritual naturalism, religious humanism, and process theology. Kaplan’s earlier published essay (1909) dealt with "Judaism and Nationalism" and his last book, consisting of conversations with existentialist theologian, Arthur A. Cohen, was entitled …

Self-Organization and Agency: In Chemistry and In Process Philosophy

Article by Joseph E. Earley

Nature abounds in compound individuals. Discrete, functioning entities are made up of components which are, in some sense, also individuals. Scientists sometimes need to be concerned with whether aggregates (e.g., species of plantsl) or components (e.g., quarks2) are ‘real’, but such questions are not generally regarded as having great importance for science. It has often …

Sensa and Patterns

Article by Villard Alan White

Many interpreters read Whitehead as maintaining in PR that sensa and patterns are distinguishable in terms of their modes of ingression. This view holds that while patterns cannot ingress without some sensa, sensa can ingress independently of any pattern. For example, John Lango writes: Sensa can ingress separately from patterns, whereas patterns must ingress together …

Sharing a Vague Vision: Wieman’s Early Critique of Whitehead

Article by C. Robert Mesle

In 1927, Henry Nelson Wieman began nearly 20 years of teaching at the University of Chicago Divinity School, commissioned, in part, to interpret the thought of Alfred North Whitehead for his colleagues and students. Bernard Meland, a member of Wieman’s first class on the philosophy of religion there, recalls that Wieman used only two texts …

Social Differentiation and Class Structure: Some Implications of Whitehead’s Metaphysics

Article by Randall C. Morris

I. Whitehead’s Theory of Social Differentiation In AI 58-60 Whitehead distinguishes between Instinct, Intellect, and Wisdom. Instinct is "the mode of experience directly arising out of the urge of inheritance . . . ." Intellect is the mode of experience arising from the entertainment of ideals. Wisdom "determines the mode of coalescence of instinct with …

Some Comments on Randall Morris’ Process Philosophy and Political Ideology

Article by Charles Hartshorne

Some of Professor Morris’ characterizations and criticisms of my political views seem fairly reasonable. Human political relations are complex and subtle indeed. There are, however, some serious failures of communication in one specific passage. For such failures, both parties may be partly at fault. I allow myself to think that I have usually written with …

Some Not Ungrateful But Perhaps Inadequate Comments About Comments on My Writings and Ideas

Article by Charles Hartshorne

This symposium is the 5th, in which I’ve been asked to comment on comments of other philosophers about me. To have Cobb’s frank, critical comments on my work is a fine reward for longevity. (see The philosophy of Charles Hartshorne by John B. Cobb, Jr. at www.religion-online.org.) When I passed my 80th birthday, I began …

Some Proposals Concerning the Composition of Process and Reality

Article by Lewis S. Ford

Although many of us find in Whitehead’s philosophical achievement a system nearly unparalleled for its balance, intricacy, and tight coherence, it cannot be gainsaid that many of his books leave much to be desired with respect to the order of presentation. The unity of the four parts of Adventures of Ideas is not fully apparent, …

Some Under-and Some Over-rated Great Philosophers

Article by Charles Hartshorne

I begin with two flat statements. (1) None of the recognized great philosophers has been more widely underrated (or more misinterpreted) than Plato, unless it is Bergson; moreover, the two have important beliefs in common. (2) None of the recognized great philosophers has been more widely overrated than Aristotle, unless it is Kant; these two …

Subjectivity in the Making

Article by Lewis S. Ford

Ordinarily, we think of subjectivity in terms of consciousness. It pertains to our own conscious experience both of the external world and our own inner feelings, and by extension to the conscious experience of others. Although we know what we mean, further analysis seems impossible. Consciousness seems quite sui generis. Perhaps we can get at …

The Approach to Whitehead: Traditional? Genetic? or Systematic?

Article by Jorge Luis Nobo

I am concerned here not with particular interpretations of Whitehead’s metaphysics, but with certain contrasting assumptions guiding how different interpreters, or different groups of interpreters, have approached, or are currently approaching, that interpretative task. These assumptions are such that, to a lesser or greater degree, they constrain or dictate the overall interpretative strategy used by …

The Axiomatic Matrix of Whitehead’s Process and Reality

Article by Leemon B. McHenry

I Commentators on Whitehead’s philosophy often mention his mathematical background as a foundation for his metaphysics. Rarely, however, do they explain just how the rigorous and technical expertise of his early work finds its relevant applications in his later cosmological framework. Nor do they explain his strenuous objections to philosophers following the pattern of mathematical …

The Basingers on Divine Omnipotence: A Further Point

Article by James A. Keller

Recently in these pages David and Randall Basinger discussed the classical and the process theologians’ indictments of each other with respect to the relation between evil and divine omnipotence. According to them, the classical theologian indicts the process theologian with “forfeiting a meaningful notion of divine omnipotence,” while the latter indicts the former with “proposing …

The Brightman-Hartshorne Correspondence, 1934-1944

Article by Robert A. Gillies

This essay traces the course of a correspondence between Edgar Sheffield Brightman (1884-1953) and Charles Hartshorne (born 1897) over a ten year period beginning in 1934. Brightman taught philosophy at Boston University and Hartshorne philosophy at the University of Chicago. This correspondence is significant for two main reasons. First, it has not been documented before. …

The Clinical Use of Whitehead’s Anthropology

Article by David E. Roy

Whitehead’s cosmology is rich with meaning and relevance to the theory and practice of psychotherapy.1 His categories bear upon some of the most fundamental issues of the field, serving to clarify and unify the debated issues in this diverse and fragmented profession. This paper tackles twelve areas relevant to psychotherapy, looking briefly at how process …

The Concept of Mass in Process Theory

Article by Granville C. Henry and Robert J. Valenza

I. Introduction The four fundamental abstract dimensions of physics are mass [M], length [L], time [T], and charge [Q]; all physical parameters are built out of products of these and their inverses. Indeed, measurement systems derive their names from the choices of corresponding units. Thus the MKSQ system fixes upon meters, kilograms, seconds, and coulombs …

The Consequences of Prehending the Consequent Nature

Article by Lewis S. Ford

“For the perfected actuality passes back into the temporal world, and qualifies this world so that each temporal actuality includes it as an immediate fact of relevant experience” (PR 351). The action of this fourth phase, however, requires that actual occasions prehend the consequent nature of God. Yet it would seem that the consequent nature …

The Criterion of Metaphysical Truth and the Senses of ‘Metaphysics’

Article by Schubert M. Ogden

If Charles Hartshorne is correct that “the intellect’s self-understanding . . . is the innate, a priori, or metaphysical” (CSPM 31), then, provided “intellect” is taken as it evidently is in the dictum nihil est in intellectu quod non prius fuerit in sensu, namely, as the human intellect, I do not see how all metaphysical …

The Critique of Pure Feeling: Bradley, Whitehead, and the Anglo-Saxon Metaphysical Tradition

Article by James Bradley

It has rarely been remarked that the very title of Whitehead’s major work contains a more or less explicit reference to that of F. H. Bradley’s: Bradley’s Appearance and Reality: A Metaphysical Essay (1893) becomes Whitehead’s Process and Reality: An Essay in Cosmology (1929).1 Such an obvious and prominently placed allusion is perhaps already enough …

The Disembodied Soul

Article by John C. Bennett

In A Christian Natural Theology, John B. Cobb, Jr., has provided a number of interesting applications of Whitehead’s systematic categories to anthropological problems and concepts. Among the problems he explores is the question of life after death, understood in terms of the disembodied soul (CNT 63-70). Cobb correctly notes that Whitehead gave no extended attention …

The Enigmatic “Passage of the Consequent Nature to the Temporal World” in Process and Reality: An Al

Article by Denis Hurtubise

In the penultimate paragraph of Process and Reality,1 Whitehead introduces2 a new feature in his concept of God, making thereby possible a fourth phase, never mentioned before in the book,3 in the universe’s accomplishment of its actuality: “But the principle of universal relativity is not to be stopped at the consequent nature of God. This …

The Experience of Value and Theological Argumentation

Article by Philip E. Devenish

As I understand my assignment for this conference, it is to represent a “methodological alternative in process theology” that has been given the name “rationalist” so as to facilitate its distinction from two other such alternatives, the empirical and speculative so-called. Instead of attending to features that might be thought to distinguish particular theological approaches, …

The Feeling for the Future: A Comment on Ann Plamondon’s Essay

Article by James W. Felt

Professor Plamondon’s contribution to the discussion of induction is interesting and fruitful, but I am not content with her representation of Whitehead’s notion of the ‘valid inductive inference’ pattern. I think she has left something out, and what she has left out is of key metaphysical importance. True, she tells us she did not intend …

The Horizons of the Organic Vision of the Universe and Humanity: Vladimir Solovyev

Article by Boris L. Gubman

The crisis of the classical philosophy of the New Age has generated strong criticism of its foundations and different, new tendencies and developments of Western thought. It culminated, on the one hand, in the total deconstruction of the traditional vision of the universe and humanity, and, on the other, in the attempts to build a …

The Incoherence of Whitehead’s Theory of Perception

Article by Charles A. Kimball

In his theory of perception, Whitehead attempts to do justice to all our various and apparently conflicting perceptive experiences. By reconciling two seemingly incompatible traditional accounts of perception, he hopes to cut through the Gordian knot of problems which have bound the theory of perception since the seventeenth century. Unfortunately, the boldness of his aims …

The Jeweled Net of Nature

Article by Paul O. Ingram

Most significant and profound is the teaching of the ultimate path of Mahayana. It teaches salvation of oneself and others. It does not exclude even animals or birds. The flowers in the spring fall beneath its branches; Dew in autumn vanishes before the withered grass. ango shiki (Indications of the Goals of the Three Teachings) …

The LSD Experience: A Whiteheadian Interpretation

Article by Leonard Gibson

“Speculative Philosophy” Whitehead defines at the outset of Process and Reality as “the endeavor to frame a coherent, logical, necessary system of general ideas in terms of which every element of our experience can be interpreted” (PR 4). Our experience includes both elements ordinary and elements extraordinary. I want to examine in Whiteheadian terms some …

The Matrix of Personality: A Whiteheadian Corroboration of Harry Stack Sullivan’s Interpersonal Theo

Article by Thomas J. Regan

David E. Roy’s article “The Value of the Dialogue Between Process Thought and Psychotherapy” (PS 14:158-74) ably suggested a number of significant areas where process thought and psychotherapy might interact to their mutual advantage. This essay attempts to make a contribution to that ongoing dialogue by corroborating some of the central features of Harry Stack …

The Metaphysical Significance of Whitehead’s Creativity

Article by André Cloots

A common interpretation of Whitehead’s creativity is that creativity refers to the clement of self-creation and self-determination, characterizing every concrescence. Creativity means, according to this interpretation, that every actuality is a free, creative act of unification, determining its own being, i.e., its own becoming. Interpretations like those of William Christian, Ivor Leclerc and even Charles …

The Metaphysical Status of Civilized Society

Article by Austin Lewis

That Whitehead’s Philosophy of Organism has generated much scholarly interest since its inception is well established, according to one measure at least, by the wealth of serious commentary devoted to the explication, criticism, and/or revision of his work. The mainstay of that research, however, has concentrated primarily on only three areas of Whitehead’s philosophy: the …

The Metaphysics of Cumulative Penetration Revisited

Article by Kenneth K. Inada

Professor Steve Odin’s “A Metaphysics of Cumulative Penetration: Process Theory and Hua-yen Buddhism” (PS 11:65-82), is a highly stimulating and challenging essay not only for Whiteheadian and Buddhist studies, but also for its comparative value.1 He has presented a searching analysis of Whiteheadian metaphysics of cumulative penetration, but his treatment of Buddhism in general and …

The Misapprehension of Presentational Immediacy

Article by James E. Lindsey, Jr.

  In Adventures of Ideas Whitehead says: But physiologist and physicist are equally agreed that the body inherits conditions from the physical environment according to the physical laws. There is a general continuity between human experience and physical occasions. The elaboration of such a continuity is one most obvious task of philosophy. (AI 244, italics …

The Moral Stance of Theism Without the Transcendent God

Article by Marvin C. Shaw

“The letting be of Being is for the religious consciousness grace. — John Macquarrie H. N. Wieman agreed with the American critical naturalists Santayana and Dewey in rejecting the supernatural metaphysical vision, but he did not adopt their religious humanism. Among those who accepted the naturalism and pragmatism dominant in American thought in the second …

The Original Version Of Process And Reality, Part V. A Tentative Reconstruction

Article by Denis Hurtubise

1. Introductory Remarks In The Emergence of Whitehead’s Metaphysics,1 Lewis S. Ford describes Process and Reality as the result of a complex redactional procedure in which an original manuscript from the summer of 19272 has been repeatedly supplemented by additions from renewed perspectives. As a matter of fact, Ford contends, Whitehead’s metaphysical outlook kept shifting …

The Pacifism Debate in the Hartshorne — Brightman Correspondence

Article by Mark Youmans Davies

I. Introduction The most substantive portion of the Brightman-Hartshorne correspondence took place from November 1933 through the summer of 1944.1 The major events in Europe and Asia during this time are well known, including the rise of Nazi Germany and the expansion of the Japanese Empire, culminating in World War II. Since Hartshorne and Brightman …

The Pardshaw Dialogues: Sense Awareness and the Passage of Nature

Book by Dorothy Emmet (ed.)

(COMPLETE SYMPOSIUM) This special issue of Process Studies reproduces discussions conducted by the Ephiphany Philosophers group in Pardshaw, West Cumbria, England, and continued in Cambridge, during 1984. The concern of the participants was to see how philosophy might contribute to new developments in science.


The scholars listed in the section on "The Participants" discuss various aspects of Whiteheadian concepts, particularly those from his Process and Reality.

The Participants  in  The Pardshaw Dialogues: Sense Awareness and the Passage of Nature

Book Chapter by Dorothy Emmet (ed.)

This is a list of those participating in the dialogue which follows: R. B. Braithwaite is a Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, and former Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Cambridge. His publications include Scientific Explanation (1953), An Empiricist Looks at Religious Belief (1955). Christopher Clarke read mathematics at Cambridge where he …

The Peirceian Influence on Hartshorne’s Subjectivism

Article by Theodore R. Vitali, C.P

Charles Hartshorne has defined his philosophy as the “social view of reality.” Elsewhere he has termed it “Realistic Idealism.” Two fundamental principles underlie this philosophy: the plurality of events and the primacy of subjectivity or inclusion. Intrinsic to these principles are Hartshorne’s view of internal and external relations. In this paper we shall be principally …

The Philosopher’s Poet: Boris Pasternak, Dr. Zhivago, and Whitehead’s Cosmological Vision

Article by Strachan Donnelley

Alfred North Whitehead, the author of the monumental and tortuous Process and Reality, is our century’s foremost philosophical cosmologist. His speculative thinking is marked by a keen sense for aesthetic experience and art. In particular, he has a love for philosophy in art and for that rare phenomenon, the philosopher’s poet. For example, Whitehead finds …

The Plight of Cosmology

Article by Fatima Pinar Goktan Canevi

Whitehead defines philosophy as “the self-correction by consciousness of its own initial excess of subjectivity” (PR 15/22). Whitehead’s own effort in its intention fully conforms to this conception of the philosophical enterprise. Quite ironically, however, in conceiving process in the sense of concrescence as subjective immediacy (PR 29/43) he undermines his own purpose. Whitehead tells …

The Power of the Past

Article by Nancy Frankenberry

As process thought continues to be preoccupied with the category of the future, even to the point of identifying "God" with "the activity of the future" (PS 11:169-79), it seems important to recall Whitehead’s own texts which give an equal analytic balance to the power of the past. A focus on the future which ignores …

The Prehensibility of God’s Consequent Nature

Article by Palmyre M. F. Oomen

A. Introduction to the Problem Nowhere in his work does Whitehead give an explicit account of the question: how can God’s consequent nature, which he himself characterizes as “incomplete” (PR 345), influence the temporal world? “To be able to have influence” means that God’s consequent nature must be prehensible for temporal (or “worldly”)2 occasions, but …

The Problem of Evil in Process Theism and Classical Free Will Theism

Article by William Hasker

No topic in the philosophy of religion seems to be so universally engaging as the problem of evil. This problem can be counted on to hold the attention of practically any audience, regardless of their degree of philosophical sophistication. During the past several decades there has probably been more writing on the problem of evil …

The Process Paradigm, Rites of Passage, and Spiritual Quests

Article by Nancy Frankenberry

Like Voltaire, who was ready to vouch for the sincerity of his professed belief in God, but who added "as for Monsieur the Son and Madame His Mother, that’s a different story," more and more Americans are giving lip service to belief in God, while adopting the discourse of "spirituality," and treating conventional religious doctrine …

The Process Perspective as Context for Educational Evaluation

Article by Donald W. Sherburne

(Originally presented at the meeting of the Association for Process Philosophy of Education in Chicago, April 1989) This symposium, like its title, has two parts. That title is: "Educational Evaluation in Process Perspective." It is my task to focus on the second half of the title, on the character of that process perspective which our …

The Promise of a Process Feminist Theory of Relations

Article by Nancy B. Howell

Feminists have entered a productive period in which constructive attempts at post-patriarchal theories of relations are being formulated and imaged in light of women’s experience and ideas. The thesis of this essay is that a promising feminist theory of relations may be based upon the organic philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead. The basis of this …

The Reformed Subjectivist Principle Revisited

Article by Lewis S. Ford

The reformed subjectivist principle, that the primary togetherness of things is their togetherness in experience (PR 189/288), is mentioned but rarely in Alfred North Whitehead’s Process and Reality. Nevertheless many have intuitively appreciated its centrality to his endeavor. The theologian Schubert Ogden sees it as "the starting-point for a genuinely new theistic conception" (RG 57). …

The Relevance of An Introduction to Mathematics to Whitehead’s Philosophy

Article by Christoph Wassermann

Most of Whitehead’ s publications prior to 1911 were intended exclusively for the world of professional mathematicians. This was especially the case in his Treatise on Universal Algebra (1898) and in Principia Mathematica (published together with B. Russell in 1910 ff.). In some minor publications he in addition had mathematical physicists in mind.1 This, however, …

The Sacrament of Creative Transformation

Article by Bernard J. Lee, S.M.

  I. Ecclesiology In recent Whiteheadian process thought, the technical category of “proposition” has come into prominence. Donald Sherburne used the category in his exploration of the ontological status of art (WA, ch.5). William Beardslee used it to elaborate the formal structure of the christological character of Jesus, (HH, ch.8). John Cobb’s christology in Christ …

The Subjectivist Principle and Its Reformed and Unreformed Versions

Article by David Ray Griffin

James Lindsey’s essay on the subjectivist principle (PS 6:97-102) first came to my attention in an earlier version in Connection with my role as co-editor of the Corrected Edition of Process and Reality. Lindsey’s essay contains some proposals for textual changes; insofar as my essay is a response to his, it is limited to the …

The Subjectivist Principle and the Linguistic Turn Revisited

Article by James E. Lindsey, Jr.

Some years ago Richard M. Rorty argued that in order “to understand the needs which Process and Reality was intended to satisfy, one must understand Whitehead’s diagnosis of the state of modem philosophy” (WEP 134). While this thesis is certainly correct, Rorty’s account of the needs Process and Reality was intended to satisfy requires reexamination. …

The Theological Use of Scripture in Process Hermeneutics

Article by David Kelsey

What follows are reflections on two marvelously rich and suggestive sets of essays, one dealing with “New Testament Interpretation from a Process Perspective’ (JAAR, March, 1979) and the other dealing with Old Testament Interpretation from the same perspective. It is important, I think, to set candidly into the record (what will be clearly enough revealed …

The Untenability of Whitehead’s Theory of Extensive Connection

Article by Lee F. Werth

Whitehead’s account of the perceptive mode of presentational immediacy, as he explicitly states, is dependent upon a definition of straight lines in terms which make no appeal to measurement (unlike the definition, ‘the shortest distance between two points’): "It is to be noted that this doctrine of presentational immediacy and of the strain-locus entirely depends …

The Value of the Dialogue Between Process Thought and Psychotherapy

Article by David E. Roy

The true method of discovery is like the flight of an aeroplane. It starts from the ground of particular observation; it makes a flight in the thin air of imaginative generalization; and it again lands for renewed observation rendered acute by rational interpretation (PR 5/ 7).   In Process and Reality Whitehead produced a cosmology …

Thomas Aquinas and Three Poets Who Do Not Agree with Him

Article by Charles Hartshorne

[Editor’s note: Late in 1991 Hartshorne sent two articles to me for submission to The Midwest Quarterly, a journal on whose editorial board I serve. One of the articles was accepted for publication; the other, published here, was considered by the editor-in-chief to be too long. Hartshorne apparently guessed that the article might be too …

Three Responses to Neville’s Creativity and God

Article by Charles Hartshorne, John Cobb and Lewis Ford

Editor’s note: This review article deals with Robert C. Neville’s recently published Creativity and God: A Challenge to Process Theology (The Seabury Press, 1980; 156 pages). Hartshorne: I begin by acknowledging the considerable merits of Professor Neville’s book. His discussion of my philosophy in particular is well written, reasonably fair and accurate, and in some …

Time and Timelessness in the Philosophy of A. N. Whitehead

Article by Reiner Viehl

 This essay “Zeit und Zeitlosigkeit in der Philosophie A. N. Whiteheads,” in Natur und Geschichte: Karl Löwith zum 70. Geburtstag (Kohlhammer: Stuttgart, 1967), 373-405, was translated By James W. Felt, S.J Translator’s note: All unbracketed italics occur also in the original text. I wish gratefully to acknowledge the assistance afforded me in this translation by …

Time in Whitehead and Heidegger: A Response

Article by Peter B. Manchester

If “derived time” follows from something more primordial (for Whitehead, creative advance as constituted in the subjective immediacy of concrescing actual entities; for Heidegger, the truth of Being as disclosed in the ‘openness’ which pervades Dasein on the basis of its ecstatic-horizontal temporality), that something must not itself be time-like, or talk of “derivation” is …

Toward a Process-Relational Christian Soteriology

Article by David L. Wheeler

Introduction Scholars such as John B. Cobb and David R. Griffin have developed the Christological implications of Whiteheadian process-relational thought in a number of widely read works in recent years.1 “Evangelical” Christians, holding the Christian scriptures to be the uniquely inspired and authoritative charter documents of their faith, and finding in these scriptures a Christ …

Traditional Free Will Theodicy and Process Theodicy: Hasker’s Claim for Parity

Article by David Ray Griffin

In the foregoing essay, which represents a continuation of a conversation that Professor Hasker and I began in Searching for An Adequate God,1 he reconsiders the idea, conceded by many traditional theists, that process theism enjoys an advantage with regard to the problem of evil. Hasker was one of those.2 Having now given the matter …

Trapped Within History?: A Process Philosophical Refutation Of Historicist Relativism

Article by Nicholas Rescher

I. Stage Setting: Historicity Process philosophy represents a philosophical approach that is of substantial interest and value in its own right. However, the object of this present discussion it to exhibit its substantial instrumental value. For, as will be argued here, it is also of great utility for the clarification and resolution of philosophical problems …

Two Conceptions of Power

Article by Bernard Loomer

Editor’s note: Bernard Loomer’s essay was presented as the Inaugural Lecture of the D. R. Sharpe Lectureship on Social Ethics, given at Bond Chapel of the University of Chicago on October 19, 1975, and is reprinted with the permission of the Dean of the Divinity School of the University of Chicago. The complete proceedings of …

Wang Yang-Ming’s ‘Inquiry on the Great Learning

Article by Robert Neville

I. Introduction Though an outgrowth of Western philosophy, process philosophy has many affinities with the Chinese tradition. Whitehead himself, as well as Hartshorne, Cobb, and others, pointed out certain parallels with Mahayana Buddhism regarding their common denial of an underlying substantial substratum for enduring objects.1 The Taoist strand of Chinese thought has an even more …

Weaving the World

Article by Marjorie Suchocki

  A lecture delivered at Xavier University, October, 1983 for the purpose of introducing the audience to basic elements of feminist and process thought.   We women are weavers — makers of things from the stuff at hand. The image is an old one, calling up visions of women with spindles and looms, taking raw …

What is Wrong with the Mirror Image? A Brief Reply to Simoni-Wastila on the Problem of Radical Parti

Article by Donald Wayne Viney

Henry Simoni-Wastila argues in a recent issue of this journal (28.1-2) that Charles Hartshorne’s dipolar theism is plagued by inconsistencies that Hartshorne himself obliquely recognizes but which he has never successfully resolved. According to Hartshorne, God has direct experiential acquaintance with the feelings of every actuality. Yet, as Simoni-Wastila points out, there is a “radical …

Whitehead and a Committee

Article by Robert S. Brumbaugh

In his study of three educational philosophers, Dewey, Russell, Whitehead, (Southern Illinois University Press, 1986) Brian Hendley pointed out that Whitehead’s approach to educational reform was different from that of the other two thinkers he treated. Where Russell aimed at an experimental school that would be a demonstration of his ideas, and Dewey set up …

Whitehead and Alexander

Article by Dorothy Emmet

 (This article was originally published as pages 100-120 in the book Die Gifford Lecutres und ibre Deutung: Materialien zu Whiteheads Process und Realität, Band 2 (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1991), edited by Michael Hampe and Helmut Maassen. It was translated into English by Michael Hampe and is used here with permission.)   A. N. …

Whitehead and Aristotle On Propositions

Article by Peter J. Cataldo

Although Whitehead’s theory of propositions has received treatment in many general studies of Whitehead’s philosophy, it has received little attention as a topic by itself. Our contribution is a general comparative study of the central differences among Whitehead’s and Aristotle’s theories about propositions. Specifically, we intend to show that the crucial point of difference, demanded …

Whitehead and Contemporary Analytic Philosophy

Article by D.S. Clarke, Jr.

As developed through the writings of Charles Hartshorne, Whitehead’s process conception of God has had an important influence on natural theology as taught in the seminaries. But in the secular philosophical discussion dominated by analytical thought in the English-speaking world he has suffered the worst fate that can befall a philosopher. This is not to …

Whitehead and Locke’s Concept of “Power”

Article by Ernest Wolf-Gazo

  I. Introduction The present paper promotes a basic thesis: Locke, as he presents his main epistemological theory in his celebrated An Essay on Human Understanding, is transformed into a metaphysician by Whitehead in his Process and Reality. Anyone familiar with the traditions in Western philosophy, particularly with British empiricism, will find my contention somewhat …

Whitehead and Merleau-Ponty: Commitment as a Context for Comparison

Article by Robert E. Doud

In a recent article Nicholas F. Gier announced a project which would involve “a comprehensive comparative analysis of phenomenology and process philosophy” (PS 6:197-213). My own article is not intended to introduce such a grand program, but only to derive from Whitehead and Merleau-Ponty in dialogue and comparison a sharpening of the question of commitment. …

Whitehead and Merleau-Ponty: Some Moral Implications

Article by William S. Hamrick

Some years ago, Paul Weiss posed a well-known objection against Whitehead’s thesis “that actual occasions perish when and as they become.” “Held to too tenaciously,” Weiss writes, “the view would prevent Whitehead from affirming that there were any beings, other than God, which actually persist. As a consequence he would not be able to explain …

Whitehead and Newton on Space and Time Structure

Article by Robert R. Llewellyn

I. Introduction The construction of a theory of space-time structure is clearly a fundamental concern of Alfred North Whitehead in his early writings in the philosophy of natural science (see, for example, the “Prefaces” to PNK, CN, and R). There are important modifications in Whitehead’s theory in his later, more metaphysical, writings; but these modifications …

Whitehead and Nietzsche: Overcoming the Evil of Time

Article by Strachan Donnelley

Whitehead and Nietzsche, indefatigable process philosophers, march to decidedly different philosophic drums. Yet at a striking junction, they cross paths. Both find human life and the temporal world of becoming plagued by an ultimate evil that is deeply involved with the nature of time — in particular, with the essential passage of time and the …

Whitehead and Russell: Origins of Middleheadedness, Simplemindedness

Article by Paul G. Kuntz

If my studies of Whitehead and Russell are, as Lucas says, “intellectual biographies,” such an approach has very recently been given its greatest boost in Russell: The Journal of the Bertrand Russell Archives with the publication of Whitehead’s “To the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge”1 preceded by an analysis by Paul Delany of …

Whitehead and Santayana

Article by Timothy T.L.S. Sprigge

George Santayana (1869-1952) and A.N. Whitehead (1861-1947) were almost precisely contemporary philosophers each of whom elaborated a complete metaphysical or ontological system, the affinities and contrasts between which are of considerable interest (I am not distinguishing here between metaphysics and ontology as the terminologies of our two thinkers diverge on this in ways attention to …

Whitehead and the Survival of “Subordinate Societies”

Article by Paul A. Bogaard

 Presented to the Symposium “Whitehead’s Metaphysics” Canadian Philosophical Association, UPET, 24 May 1992   Twenty years ago this year, Ivor Leclerc published The Nature of Physical Existence (NPE). This was not to be one further elucidation of Whitehead’s “philosophy of organism,” but Leclerc’s own detailed recounting of how we must recover a few basic presuppositions …

Whitehead as Counterrevolutionary? Toward Christian-Marxist Dialogue

Article by Clark M. Williamson

Introduction In the previous essay, Justice and the Class Struggle. A Challenge for Process Theology,” George Pixley has put decisively before all process thinkers a host of issues arising from the struggle for justice and humanization which are at the heart of the conflict within the world today. He raises three issues, mainly involving justice, …

Whitehead on the Metaphysical Employment of Language

Article by Donald A. Crosby

In an article which appeared some time ago Frank M. Doan sought to determine the precise nature of Whitehead’s revised metaphysical language and to appraise its effectiveness both as a mode of explanation and as a vehicle of philosophic imagination. Included in that discussion was a presentation in four steps of Whitehead’s method of deriving …

Whitehead, Deconstruction, and Postmodernism

Article by Luis G. Pedraja

Alfred North Whitehead’s critique of modernism is similar to what are now considered "postmodern" critiques. In particular, Whitehead’s philosophy and critique of modernism parallels many of Derrida’s epistemological and contextual concerns. Although the philosophies of Whitehead and Derrida are similar in some respects, there is nothing to link them beyond a few references to common …

Whitehead, Heidegger, and the Paradoxes of the New

Article by James Bradley

Much philosophical thinking in the twentieth century is characterized, on the negative side, by a critique of philosophy as inextricably entangled with the concept of “ground.” On the positive side, this is matched by an extensive elaboration of what may be called “self-realization” as the principle of analysis, where whatever is taken to be the …

Whitehead, Special Relativity and Simultaneity

Article by Villard Alan White

Since the appearance of The Principle of Relativity in 1922, Whitehead’s departures from the traditional Einsteinian interpretation of the special and general theories of relativity have been discussed and criticized. Throughout most of this discussion, however, the central issue has been perceived to be whether Whitehead’s 1922 interpretation is superior to or inferior to Einstein’s …

Whitehead’s Category of Harmony: Analogous Meanings in Every Realm of Being and Culture

Article by Paul G. Kuntz

  I. The Pythagorean traditions of four kinds of harmony: musical harmony the root metaphor "Harmony" is a word now used only in metaphorical senses.1 In the long and complicated history of this word, which we cannot here trace, the literal sense has been forgotten. The ancient Greek a r m o z . meant …

Whitehead’s Category of Nexus of Actual Entities

Article by John W. Lango

Whitehead’s process metaphysics is also a relation metaphysics. For instance, one of the categories in his categoreal scheme in Process and Reality is the "principle of process," and another is the "principle of relativity." Most significantly, prehensions are "Concrete Facts of Relatedness" (22-23). Although it is customary to classify him as a process philosopher, it …

Whitehead’s Early Philosophy of Mathematics

Article by Granville C. Henry and Robert J. Valenza

We examine Whitehead’s early philosophy of mathematics in this article because it was his only explicit philosophy of mathematics. After Principia Mathematica, Whitehead let major new mathematical developments pass him by, and he never returned seriously to a philosophy that considered those new directions in mathematics.1 In looking for a work of Whitehead that singularly …

Whitehead’s Harvard Lectures, 1926-27, Compiled by George Bosworth Burch

Article by Dwight C. Stewart (ed.)

Editor’s Introduction A large set of class notes, papers, clippings, etc., compiled by the late George Bosworth Burch, for many years Fletcher Professor of Philosophy at Tufts University, has been donated to the Harvard University Archives by his widow, Betty Brand Burch. The set consists of twenty-nine bound books, organized into forty-eight volumes. Each volume …

Whitehead’s Inability to Affirm a Universe of Value

Article by David L. Schindler

Alfred North Whitehead indicates in the preface of Process and Reality that his whole metaphysical position is essentially a repudiation of the doctrine of "vacuous actuality" (PR xiii, viii). By "vacuous actuality’’ he means an actuality which is "void of subjective experience" (PR 167/ 253), or, as he say’s elsewhere, a "res vera devoid of …

Whitehead’s Metaphysics

Article by Leslie Armour

 (The Canadian symposium on Whitehead’s Metaphysics was held May 25, 1992, at the annual meeting of the Canadian Philosophical Association, Prince Edward Island, Canada.)   1. In Process & Reality, Whitehead defines the task of “Speculative Philosophy” as “the endeavor to frame a coherent, logical, necessary system of general ideas in terms of which every …

Whitehead’s Moral Philosophy

Article by Richard S. Davis

Lynne Belaief’s discussion, "Whitehead and Private Interest Theories," in the July 1966 Ethics purports to present the foundational elements of a Whiteheadian ethical theory. In the course of so doing, Belalef offers refutations of the complementary charges that Whitehead reduces ethics to aesthetics and adheres to a private-interest theory of morality. Here I contend that …

Whitehead’s Other Aesthetic

Article by Willliam Dean

In Alfred North Whitehead’s philosophy there are two ways of describing beauty, or aesthetic experience. Whitehead scholars, with damaging effects, have overemphasized one and underemphasized the other. They have so emphasized the rationalistic way, which concentrates on the intellectual organization of the past, that the meaning of aesthetic experience has been exaggerated. They have so …

Whitehead’s Psychological Physiology: A Third View

Article by William Gallagher

Whitehead’s doctrine of the atomicity of occasions of experience raises many problems when it is applied to human mental life. In a recent issue of Process Studies (3/1 [Spring, 1973], 27-40), John Cobb and Donald Sherburne debate whether the unity of human mental experience is better understood if the relationship between the dominant society of …

Whiteheadian Philosophy and Prolog Computer Programming

Article by Granville C. Henry and Michael Geersten

Whitehead came to his mature philosophical position in Process and Reality after many years of wrestling with problems in the foundations of logic and mathematics. His doctrine of eternal objects in both his earlier and later philosophy can be understood as a description of the ontological nature of pure logic and mathematics (EWP 14-28). Eternal …

Whiteheadian Poems

Article by Conrad Hilberry

Skier “The experience starts as that smelly feeling… — Alfred North Whitehead The eye hails its friends far off: the cone of the mountain, gradations of white and violet in the snow, and barely moving against the distant cold, the bluejacket and green cap of a skier. Information only, or so the eye supposes. But …

Why Psychicalism? Comments on Keeling’s and Shepherd’s Criticisms

Article by Charles Hartshorne

Professor Keeling proceeds with a good deal of care and lucidity. He does some justice to my presentation of the case for psychicalism (the term I now prefer to “panpsychism”). With many of his sentences I have no quarrel. However, I have a correction to what he says in the third paragraph of section I. …

Why Whitehead?

Article by Robert S. Brumbaugh

Ideas applied from process thought, A. N. Whitehead’s in particular, suggest that our contemporary view of education is framed in a far too narrow philosophic context. The result is a misplaced emphasis on proposed practical reform which will, unfortunately, have an effect just the opposite of what is intended. Meant to develop socially effective technicians …

William James and the Epochal Theory of Time

Article by Richard W. Field

Some years ago Victor Lowe stressed the importance of understanding William James’s philosophy and psychology in order to understand the metaphysics of Alfred North Whitehead (3:125). Lowe’s point is well founded, for William James’s works contain many insights which have important affinities to Whitehead’s philosophy of organism. This becomes evident upon reading chapter IX of …

Wolfe Mays on Whitehead: Seeing Through a Glass Darkly

Article by John Robert Baker

In this paper I shall investigate the interpretive method which Wolfe Mays brings to Whitehead’s later philosophy as well as the resultant interpretation, particularly in The Philosophy of Whitehead (PW). According to Mays (RSW 429, RL 284) there are two approaches to the interpretation of Whitehead’s later writings: (1) the aesthetic-religious and (2) the logico-mathematical. …

Women, Power, and Politics: Feminist Theology in Process Perspective

Article by Lois Gehr Livezey

I. Feminist Theology as Process Theology Feminism and process theology have “trafficed together” (to borrow Bernard Meland’s description of the relation of ultimacy and immediacy; see CST 15) since the earliest days of contemporary feminist theology. Perhaps the best summary of that dialogue was the conference and subsequent book, edited and introduced by Sheila Greeve …

Zen and the Self

Article by Jay B. McDaniel

When one attains enlightenment in Zen Buddhism, at least two things are realized. First, one realizes that the deepest level of one’s life — what in Zen is called the “true self” — is always here-and-now. And second, one understands that this true self, even though here-and-now, is always changing. The aim of this essay …