Chapter 10: Islam in Indonesia by P. A. Hoesein Djajadiningrat  in  Islam -- The Straight Path: Islam Interpreted by Muslims

Book Chapter by Kenneth W. Morgan

The earliest historical record of Islam in Indonesia comes from Marco Polo (A.D. 1292) when he took a sojourn in Perlack on the north coast of Sumatra while he was on his way back to Venice. He found the people there had been converted to Islam by “Saracene” merchants. Today Indonesia has the largest population of Muslims, mostly Sufi, with its distinctive mysticism.

Chapter 11: Unity and Diversity in Islam by Mohammad Rasjidi  in  Islam -- The Straight Path: Islam Interpreted by Muslims

Book Chapter by Kenneth W. Morgan

The texts of the Qur’an are still and will always be valid, but we should understand them in the light of present knowledge. At the present time, there are four major tendencies in the Islamic world — orthodoxy, reform, Sufism, and Shi’a. One of the great tasks facing religious scholars in our time is the re-examination of the jurisprudence of Islam in the light of reason and modern knowledge.