The authors encourage each couple to grow and continue in growth allowing the efforts here to be a guide along the way, though not necessarily the last word for particular couples.
Growth groups seem to be the most effective means for the maximum number of persons to experience enlivening within themselves and in their relationships with others!
When my wife and I see news reports about the deaths of young people, as we did after the grisly slaughter at Virginia Tech last April, we inevitably think back to June 1999, when we lost our son, Daniel. He was a healthy, jovial and playful boy, and his sudden, unexpected death was devastating. Because …
Struggle is a very private thing. It happens in the very depths of our souls. It comes with the loss of what we have considered so significant that we cannot abide the thought of life without it. Other people commiserate, of course, as they watch us struggle with the pain of losing, the meaning of …
The goal of Growth Counseling and Psychotherapy is to maximize human wholeness. Achievement often requires more than one approach, thus the author gives and overview of the five main streams of the discipline.
Annotated Bibliography Benson, Herbert. The Relaxation Response. New York: William Morrow, 1975. A simple approach to meditation; relates various forms of meditation to physical illness and health. Clinebell, Charlotte H. Counseling for Liberation. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1976. Methods of relating counseling and consciousness raising. —. Meet Me in the Middle: On Becoming Human Together. New York: …
Bach, George R., and Wyden, Peter. The Intimate Enemy. New York: William Morrow, 1969. A guide to constructive, intimacy-enhancing conflict. Bernard, Jessie. The Future of Marriage. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972. Examines traditional, current, and future marriage styles. Brill, Mordecai L.; Halpin, Marlene; Genné, William H., eds. Write Your Own Wedding. New York: Association, 1973. A …
(ENTIRE BOOK) Prof. Oden offers a critique of contemporary pastoral counseling that notes the advantages of modern clinical psychotherapy while pointing out its limitations for pastoral counseling which he asserts has all but ignored the classical Christian pastoral tradition exemplified in the work of Gregory of Nazianzus.
There is a prayer I often use when I reflect on the ministry of pastoral care. It was offered during a prayer circle by a woman whose name may be forgotten but whose offering has left the gift of these words: May the knowledge of the love and grace of God sink from my head …
From a Christian point of view, human needs must be met on two levels: The need of both the body and the mind for that which sustains and nourishes. The search for therapy becomes transmuted into the quest for salvation.
E. Mansell Pattison, M.D. is Associate Professor-in-residence, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California at Irvine, California. After World War II it has come to be realized that the clergy were on the front line of contact with people in emotional distress. To effectively implement the resources of the clergy and the churches in a community mental health program there is need for clinically trained clergymen who can fill a professional role on the staff of community mental health programs.
The quality of life in nations and communities, in family relations, in individual worlds is the imperative issue of our times.
Knowledge of the roots of contemporary therapies can help to evaluate and use them more critically and usefully. Chapter one begins with a review of Sigmund Freud and his techniques.
The authors introduce the subject of intimacy in marriage, which is closely tied to the will to relate.
The task that lies ahead is the development of a postmodern, post-Freudian, neoclassical approach to Christian pastoral care that takes seriously the resources of modernity while also penetrating its allusions and, having found the best of modern psychotherapy still problematic, has turned again to the classical tradition for its bearings, yet without disowning what it has learned from modern clinical experience.
Using transcriptions of group discussion, the author examines the perspectives and concerns of men and women,and shows how both need to see the concerns of the other.
The inspiration, fellowship, and sense of belonging which come from involvement in the life of a church where people are “members one of another” (Rom. 12:5) is an important source of psychological nourishment.
This chapter provides a working definition of alcoholism, then describes the types and developmental pattern of alcoholism, the problem of the woman alcoholic, and the size and seriousness of the problem.
Clinebell introduces a human-potentials approach to counseling and enrichment called “growth counseling”, and relates it to the relationships and resources of the spiritual community.
The best way to cope constructively with the problems posed by this (or any) new life stage is to concentrate on developing the fresh potentials the new stage brings. The good news is that insights and methods are now available by which such persons can renew their inner lives and enliven their marriages.
An oft-quoted study of a cross-section of the American adult population revealed that one out of every seven Americans has sought professional help with a personal problem. Of these, forty-two percent went to clergymen, twenty-nine percent went to family doctors, eighteen percent to psychiatrists and psychologists, and ten percent to a special agency or clinic. Ministers are on the front lines in the efforts to help the burdened and the troubled.
Feminist psychologists have identified the male biases that have distorted normal human development for women. They have exposed the need for liberated counselors, liberated from male biases and perception of the different needs of women.
Part of the process of counseling with alcoholics is helping increase their understanding of their addictive illness. This includes help from AA, assistance from a medical expert, learning how to interrupt the addictive cycle, helping the person develop a new way of life without alcohol, and helping further his/her spiritual growth.
James A. Knight, B.D., M.D. is Associate Dean and Professor of Psychiatry, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana. The mental patient is lonely and isolated, desperately needing to feel a sense of community with others. The congregation has within its very structure the ability to heal his isolation, to rescue the alcoholic, to answer the cry for help of the suicide candidate, to give direction and fellowship to the adolescent.
We must work to produce personal growth that will energize social change, and social change that will nurture and support personal growth. If enthusiasm for individual-actualization is misused as an excuse for privitism, the long-range results will be growth-stifling for everyone on the planet.
The minister will draw on all of his resources of empathy, interpersonal sensitivity, and compassion for those caught in the tentacles of an excruciating problem, but he should not attempt to diagnose the specific nature of the difficulty. This is the psychiatrist’s area of competence and responsibility.
Psychosynthesis is a conceptive and method productive whole person approach to healing and growth for counselors and therapists.
This chapter focuses on counseling the family of the alcoholic, dealing with the family crisis, using the resources of Al-Anon, and helping the children of alcoholics.
Paul W. Pretzel, B.D., Th.D. is Pastoral Counselor and Psychologist, Suicide Prevention, Los Angeles, California. Although the long-term result of good crisis intervention is often a significant improvement in the individual’s overall adaptation to life, the specific goal of crisis intervention is to help the individual to deal with the specific stress that has brought about the crisis. Whenever the crisis counselor deviates from this goal, he is no longer involved in crisis counseling.
This chapter reviews the three levels on which alcoholic sickness can be prevented by the counselor and religious community: At the grass roots, through the influencing of symptom selection, and through early detection and treatment.
A deep-level cure for the "spectator-itis" of laymen and the one-man-show orientation of ministers seems to be emerging in the "lay renaissance" — a contemporary movement of profound significance for the mental health mission of our churches. This grassroots movement is growing spontaneously, on many fronts, with the rediscovery of the New Testament truth that every Christian has a ministry simply because he is a Christian.
Earl A. Grollman, M.H.L., D.D. is Rabbi, Beth-El Temple Center, Belmont, Massachusetts. The pastor is most effective when he acts as a pastor, not as an amateur psychiatrist. He should not forsake his own traditional resources and spiritual functions. His is a fellowship with a past, a present, and a future tied together by rites, theology, and a religious ethic. He must know the needs of those in grief and help them bear the burden of their sorrow.
This chapter discusses the role of the Religious Community in dealing with alcoholism.
Charles F. Kemp, B.D., Ph.D. is Professor of Pastoral Care, Brite Divinity School, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas. The concern is with those persons who are at the two extremes of the distribution of abilities — those who are unusually bright and are known as gifted, and those who are quite limited and are known as retarded. These two groups, so very different in many ways, have some similar problems. Each can be understood better by comparing and contrasting it with the other. Both have the same need of acceptance, attention, affection, and love.
Don S. Browning, B.D., Ph.D. is Professor of Religion and Personality, The Divinity School, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Reasons are listed why the pastoral psychology movement has ignored the poor to its own embarrassment. It did not mean that the poor could not be helped. It simply meant that help had to come in a different form than most psychological, psychiatric, and pastoral counselors were accustomed to providing.
George P. Dominick, B.D. is Chief Clinical Chaplain, The Georgian Clinic Division, Georgia Mental Health Institute, Atlanta, Georgia. The clergyman with training brings to the field of alcoholism an awareness of the person behind the bottle, an awareness of the central existential question behind the long list of situational questions and pleas. He brings this orientation to the crisis demand of the immediate situation and to the slow process of growth which is the lifelong business of the alcoholic and his family.
J. Obert Kempson, B.D., MA. is pastoral Consultant, Department of Mental Health, State of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina. The disturbed person is a child of God. 2. The intensity of his situation my isolate him from himself, others and God. 3. He may need to recognize his own worth and preserve his dignity as a person. 4. He may be preoccupied with his own perceptions of life’s demands. 5. He needs awareness of his own potential and helped to actualize it.
Thomas W. Klink (Deceased) was Chaplain and Director, Division of Religion and Psychiatry, the Menninger Foundation, Topeka, Kansas, Adapted and abridged from material originally presented to an Institute on Social Welfare Services for Clergy, La Crosse, Wisconsin, 1966. Concerns about the functions of religious communities — churches and congregations — in the effective reintegration of inmates into the open community. Those who have been institutionalized need our efforts in reducing the likelihood of a recurrence of their disorder.
Donald C. Bushfield, B.D. is Chaplain of the Help Line Telephone Clinic, Los Angeles, California. Life Line was the first church-sponsored comprehensive crisis counseling center in the world; Help Line was the first in the United States as far as we have been able to determine. This chapter tells the proper procedures for setting up such a Community Crises Counseling Service.
John B. Oman, S.T.M., D.D. is Pastor and Director of the Counseling Center, Wesley United Methodist Church, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Parent-education, group-counseling, public psychodrama, a healing fellowship of Christian friends are performing their life-shaping functions at Wesley Untied Methodist Church, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
A particular form of religious belief and practice enhances mental health when it builds bridges between people, strengthens the sense of trust, stimulates inner freedom, encourages the acceptance of reality, builds respect for both the emotional and intellectual levels of life, increases the enjoyment of life, handles sex and aggressiveness constructively, is concerned for the health of personality (rather than surface symptoms), provides effective means of handling guilt, emphasizes growth and love, provides an adequate frame of reference and object of devotion, relates persons with their unconscious minds, endeavors to change the neurotic patterns of society, and enhances self-esteem.
One strength of the growth-group approach is its adaptability to a variety of formats. The challenge is to be aware of the needs of your group and to develop formats which meet those needs best. Provide sufficient frequency, intensity, and continuity of experience together so that the psychological process of becoming a group will operate.
Alfred Adler was born in a suburb of Vienna in 1870. He trained in medicine at the University of Vienna and practiced general medicine for a while. His relationship with Freud began in 1902, when he wrote a defense of Freud’s book on dreams after it had been ridiculed in the press.(1) Freud invited him …
Frank M. Bockus, B.D., Ph.D. is Executive Director, Ecumenical Center for Religion and Health, South Texas Medical Center; Adjunct Associate Professor of Human Ecology, University of Texas Medical School, San Antonio, Texas. If the character ideal for tomorrow is the open self, how are we to train such a personality? Today we leave his development virtually to chance, to informal and almost willynilly patterns. We must begin now to construct human development systems that equip persons for openness and flexibility.
Many counselors define women by their biological function and by their relationships to men, then tend to label them “unfeminine” when they assert themselves. She makes the case for the need for “the androgynous counselor.”
Here are explored the faces, the facets of intimacy, alerting the reader that it is not a simple subject, nor is it one that cannot be understood. The exploration reveals critical criteria for study.
When we speak of authority in the Christian faith and ministry, we must see that authority through its source, namely, in the revelation in Jesus Christ. This is to say that our authority derives from him whose claim rests finally on nothing other than the sheer expression of love to God and to men.
This chapter reviews the causative factors involved in alcoholism as they operate on three levels: (1) Biochemical and psychological factors. (2) Availability of alcohol and its attractiveness as determined by social attitudes, and (3) Physiological changes as well as cultural attitudes. Alcohol provides a “pseudo-solution “to problems and anxieties. It is when this collapses, the alcoholic turns to religious solutions.
Building on a brief summary of Gregory’s life and career, the author outlines the Pope’s distinctive approach to pastoral guidance that integrates the pastoral and the theological with an astuteness that anticipates modern psychological developments.
Basic to this entire book is the IMM (Intentional Marriage Method), a simple four-step tool that a couple can use intentionally to help make their marriage more mutually fulfilling. This chapter walks the reader through these steps and their implications.
Twelve strategies are mentioned here as practical methods for renewing one’s inner wellsprings and helping a marriage become a more fulfilling bond of mutual growth.
Berkley C. Hathorne, B.D., Th.D. is in the Suicide Prevention Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Chevy Chase, Maryland. A report of the use of clergymen in community mental health centers and some of the efforts of the centers and the clergy to relate to each other. An effective, relational bridge can best be provided by a clinically trained clergyman on the staff of such centers.
Frank S. Moyer, B.D., M.A. is Chaplain-Supervisor, Rockford Memorial Hospital Rockford, Illinois. The material in this chapter is based on the author’s experience as a clergy staff member of the Community Services division, Nebraska Psychiatric Institute. The community pastor works most effectively when there is open communication, encouragement, mutual trust, respect, and cooperation. If centers will approach the community pastor in that atmosphere, a relationship may develop in which both grow toward more effective service in their community.
Lloyd E. Beebe, B.D., S.T.M. is Director, Department of Pastoral Services, Hennepin County General Hospital and Mental Health Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Adjunct Professor of Pastoral Care, United Theological Seminary, Minneapolis. Some ways are presented in which the role of the staff clergyman is being worked out at the Hennepin County Comprehensive Community Mental Health Center with the hope that it will offer some suggestions for developing clergy roles in other centers. Both the clergy and the mental health professional can work together at the local, state, and federal levels of government in emphasizing the importance of including a well trained clergyman on the staff of each community mental health center.
J. Obert Kempson, B.D., M.A. is Pastoral Consultant, Department of Mental Health, State of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina. Some motivational questions need to be raised as one looks at an individual’s qualifications, as these relate to effective pastoral care in a mental health setting. The trained, qualified clergyman can contribute out of his uniqueness in the healing community where, with other trained professionals, he assumes a vital role in crisis care to the troubled person.
George Clements, M.A., S.T.L. is Pastor, Holy Angels Catholic Church, Chicago, Illinois. Our efforts should be directed toward community participation in and sharing in the responsibility for mental health, not because of any ulterior motives but because this is just and right.
Charles W. Stewart, B.D., Ph.D. is Professor of Pastoral Theology and Supervised Ministries, Wesley Theological Seminary, Washington, D. C.. The challenge of our day is for the pastor to see his job as enabler and to begin to train laymen for the more challenging task of community mental health workers. If the congregation sees its task as the pastoral care of its people, then health and wholeness can move out into the community, which will then become a leaven for the whole loaf.
Reuel L. Howe, B.D., S.T.D. is Director, Institute for Advanced Pastoral Studies, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. Three focuses in post-ordination continuing education — the relational, the technical, the topical — would meet the needs of clergy in contemporary society and contribute therefore to their mental health potential.
Paul E. Johnson, B.D., Ph.D. is Professor Emeritus, Boston University School of Theology, Boston, Massachusetts. The education of pastors is moving into action along these strategic lines representing opportunities to keep growing in the ability to serve human needs: Graduate studies, clinical pastoral education, counselor education, parish education, Inter-city urban ministry, and Interagency participation.
Granger E. Westberg, B.D. is Professor, Hamma School of Theology, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio. How groups of ministers in Kokomo, Indiana, and LaGrange, Illinois participated in intense, organized training with other professional people.
Wayne E. Oates, B.D., Th.D. is Professor of Pastoral Care, Southern Baptist Seminary, Louisville, Kentucky. The concern of the prophets and Jesus Christ for the epileptic, the demoniac, the anxious, and the fear-ridden provide both model and motivation to teach ministers about the contemporary ministry to people in mental illness. The contribution of the theological school to the training of the clergy in mental health — his own and those of all he contacts — is of vital importance.
It has been shown that corporate worship contributes to positive mental health to the degree that it helps the individual experience a sense of belonging, personal integration, diminishing of his guilt and narcissism, re-establishment of a sense of trust, worthy self-investment, and strength for handling his problems constructively. Clinebell recommends that those who are responsible for planning worship services, test their services against these potential contributions to personality growth and health.
The interpersonal dynamics of pastoral counseling focus on a principle of variability that is based on empathetic listening to the specific situation of the counselee in order to communicate God’s corrective love. This is demonstrated in a selection of examples from paradoxical case studies of the diversities of pastoral counsel.
Resources from Erich Fromm Erich Fromm was born in Frankfurt, Germany, in 1900. He studied sociology and psychology at the universities of Frankfurt and Munich and Heidelberg, and was trained in psychoanalysis at the Psychoanalytic Institute in Berlin. He came to the United States in 1934 and was affiliated with the International Institute for Social …
Dr. Clinebell takes a practical look at the evangelistic-authoritarian approaches of the rescue mission and the Salvation Army as they seek to help the alcoholic.
The leader-facilitator brings his know-how and personhood to the group as resources for doing three things: (1) facilitating the growth of individual members; (2) developing a group climate and style of relating which release individual members and the group as a growth-stimulating organism; (3) continuing his own growth.
As women continue to re-define themselves, both men and women find themselves involved in new problems and situations that need resolving. Thereby comes the pain for gain.
As women continue to re-define themselves, both men and women find themselves involved in new problems and situations that need resolving. Thereby comes the pain for gain.
What happens when the individual comes to the pastor for help in time of trouble? While we concentrate on the individual person and his relationship to a counselor, we do not mean to forget the social dimension of life. We must seek to understand the structure of human life as a history of personal relationships in which God’s grace works as transforming power. God’s grace is his love in action.
Bertram S. Brown, M.D., is Director, National Institute of Mental Health, Chevy Chase, Maryland. A discussion of the general issue of territoriality and boundaries between religion and mental health in a time of social change. After all, the soul is our mutual turf. Can these two groups really work together?
Marriages are enriched in the mid-years through three factors: 1. Individual longevity; 2. Rising consciousness and expectations of women; 3. Epidemic loneliness in our urbanized, mobile society. A mid-course correction is valuable for any marriage.
Marriage is looked upon here as a changing, developing process. Enrichment methods and short-term crisis methods can help improve relationships by developing hidden marriage assets.
Carroll A. Wise. B.D., Th.D. is Professor of Pastoral Psychology and Counseling, Garrett Theological Seminary, Evanston, Illinois. The work described here leads to a Ph.D. or a Th.D. degree upon completion. Advanced training in pastoral counseling has three major aspects: 1. the development of the student’s emotional, intellectual, social, and professional life; 2. knowledge and understanding of human behavior in breadth and depth; 3. the ability to relate to others therapeutically through an understanding of psychotherapeutic approaches and processes.
George Christian Anderson, T.S.B., D.D. is Founder and Honorary President, Academy of Religion and Mental Health. Goals of mental health: 1.The doctor must see the dynamic qualities in the doctor-patient relationship. 2. To see the broad patterns of human motivation and the common causes of emotional disturbance. 3. To think in terms of the relation between emotional disturbance and illness. 4. To teach the counselor understandable methods of therapy that he might treat a share of such illness. 5. To give enough knowledge of malignant conditions that he might refer to a specialist.
E. Mansell Pattison, M.D. is Associate Professor-in-Residence, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California at Irvine, California. Behind the issues of professional role allocation still lie conceptual disagreements that often play a major role in preventing effective collaboration and the working out of mutually satisfying professional roles. Most problems in interprofessional relations involve combinations of both conceptual and role conflicts. Cooperation in referral, in consultation, and in treatment is discussed.
D. Ozarin, M.D., M.P.H. is in the Division of Mental Health Service Program, NIMH., Chevy Chase, Maryland. Clergy have filled prominent roles as officers and board members of mental health agencies and associations; most boards include one or more clergymen. Their skills in community organization have been put to good use. They are also in key positions to channel information from the public into the mental health agency and vice versa.
John M. Vayhinger, B.D., Ph.D. is Professor of Psychology and Pastoral Care, Anderson School of Theology, Anderson, Indiana. Much needed is research beyond that already completed which will develop guidelines for improving the church’s many roles in community health — from meeting the existential crises of being human and belonging to social groups and facing anxiety and dread, to providing more efficiently the “learning atmosphere” for a religious style-of-life.
Matti Joensuu, B.D., D.D. is Executive Secretary, Board of Family Questions, The Lutheran Church of Finland, Helsinki, Finland, and Former Secretary of the Department of Cooperation of Men and Women in Church, Family, and Society of the World Council of Churches. Many qualified experts from America have given significant help in various kinds of mental health training programs all around the world despite the important and sometimes radical cultural differences.
Experiences in a group are most likely to help a marriage become an ongoing stimulus to growth if these guidelines are observed: (1) The couple agrees on certain things both want (goals) and decides how to attain them (strategy). They tell the group about both goals and strategy. (2) Each partner concentrates on changing his side of the relationship rather than trying to reform the other. (3) Between group sessions they use new communication and problem-solving skills learned in the group.
It is imperative that a congregation feel that their minister is highly approachable for individual counseling. His availability for counseling should be publicized regularly in the church bulletin. In addition, he should let it be known that he welcomes the opportunity to talk individually with anyone who wishes to discuss any issue raised by his sermons.
Marriage relationships are especially vulnerable to changing roles and identities. Some may head toward divorce while others will achieve greater marriage satisfactions. Counseling during such times can be difficult.
Forgiveness, as the Christian understands it, involves all that we mean by psychological acceptance. The pastor should find his capacity to enter into the problems of another sustained and increased by the resources of grace to which in faith he turns.
Carl Gustav Jung was born in Kesswil on Lake Constance in Switzerland in 1875. His father was a clergyman. Carl was very precocious, reading Latin books at age six. To escape his loneliness and the marital conflicts of his parents, he often played for hours alone in the attic with a wooden figure he had …
This chapter continues the exploration of Gregory’s dipolar method of counseling by focusing in detail on several prototype cases in order to reveal his theological method of pastoral practice.
Continuing the author’s study in the psychology of applied religion, the now discontinued Emmanuel Movement had many elements of theory and practice worth emulating. It was the first church-sponsored psycho-religious clinic.
Genuine intimacy with one person, usually the spouse, has proven satisfying to both persons. In a good marriage intimacy can often be grown while a bad marriage may need to learn true intimacy.
Robert H. Bonthius, B.D., Ph. D. is Director of Community Action Training Services of Northern Ohio, Cleveland, Ohio. This chapter is addressed to clergymen who wish to improve their ability to engage in social action, not by themselves — a mistake that can be fatal! — but as leaders of men, their congregations, other groups.
This chapter provides specific tools for use with enrichment groups and growth counseling. These include ways of developing skills in self-awareness, listening, self-affirmation, risking and trusting, increasing spiritual and physical intimacy, and coping constructively with conflict.
This chapter provides specific tools for use with enrichment groups and growth counseling. These include ways of developing skills in self-awareness, listening, self-affirmation, risking and trusting, increasing spiritual and physical intimacy, and coping constructively with conflict.
The awareness of the brevity and preciousness of time is increased in our mid-years along with a strengthening of our insight into priorities and values.
Continuing the practical orientation of the opening chapters, Dr. Clinebell describes in detail the way in which Alcoholics Anonymous began and grew,, and how it applies the insights of psychology and religion effectively to the sickness called alcoholism.
Closeness and intimacy, especially in marriage, is a must, and it begins with good communications between the parties.
Behavior-action therapies are a group of approaches to problems based in the idea that the problems are the result of faulty learning. Basically learning is used to enable growth.
Until now, for most women growing up in the church meant men as the image makers and decision makers. But there are a number of women named in the Bible as having important roles, and contributing to the work of the church. And though they may be in the background, women still contribute in a number of ways. Ministers and pastoral counselors need to be aware of these past roles and especially aware of where those roles may go today.
The functioning of an ecumenically oriented, clinically trained clergyman on the mental health center staff is essential to the bridge-building process by which such reciprocity grows.
There are at least four channels through which the prophetic ministry can be implemented: (a) prophetic preaching, (b) study-discussion groups (and other educational programs), (c) social action groups, and (d) action by individual members through community social action projects. These four methods can be applied effectively to the many social problems which plague local, national, and world communities.
The new femininity offers opportunities for (in fact demands) a richer masculinity; together men and women can create more mutually humanizing relationships, including more delightful marriages.
Increasing the spiritual sharing in a marriage deepens the care and intimacy of that relationship. The moments of sharing on the spiritual level are tender, precious moments in a relationship. Such moments become increasingly important and wholeness-giving in the second half of a marriage.
Activities, ingredients, and models for groups, retreats and workshops for marriage enrichment, and ways of recruiting persons for such groups.
The primary responsibility for transmitting the religious and ethical dimension of this heritage rests with the parents of these children and with the education programs of churches and synagogues.
A deep relationship will have its ups and downs. The authors suggest eight stages of life, and how marriage relationship can grow, be enriched, when the overall goal is a better and better relationship.
Developed by Eric Byrne, transactional analysis has provided a number of tools useful for the psychotherapist and counselor.
The church is the true Christian community holding out hope for the nurture and health of spirit to those within it, when it is animated by the spirit of acceptance, of reconciliation, and of service.
Homer L. Jernigan, B.D., Ph.D. is Albert V. Danielsen Professor of Pastoral Care and Counseling; Director of the Danielsen Center for the Pastoral Care and Counseling, Boston University School of Theology, Boston, Massachusetts. Religious ministry has long recognized the importance of such experiences as birth, puberty, marriage, sickness, and death. Empirical studies have brought new understanding of the significance of life crises. We now have an opportunity to bring together the historic wisdom of our religious traditions and customs with the findings and insights of the behavioral sciences. The religious leader is a key person in this process.
Dr. Clinebell outlines a growth-oriented preparation-for-marriage program as more appropriate and effective than problem-oriented pre-marital “counseling”. He describes how such a program provides personalized training and coaching in relationship-building skills.
The author suggests some techniques that can help people become aware of the boxes they are in and how to get out of them. The techniques are especially tailored for ministers and counselors.
This chapter discusses the distinctive contribution which can be made by a religious approach to alcoholism in contrast to a non-religious approach.
No age group is more concerned than youth about finding and fulfilling themselves. The search for vivid experiencing — for turning on through rock music, mysticism, drugs, sex, freer relationships with people — is a powerful drive in youth. Because growth groups are an effective method of turning on to people, they have a special attraction and usefulness for youth.
Enhancing the enjoyment of mid-years sex is a significant ingredient in developing a couple’s pleasure potential. Good sex can continue indefinitely as a tender, love-nurturing form of sharing.
The possibilities of using modified therapy groups constructively in the church program are almost unlimited. Such groups are particularly helpful for those facing a common crisis or period of stress.
This chapter provides six models for marriage enrichment in the early years of marriage, and comments about teen marriages.
Growth groups for children can facilitate a child’s development by providing fulfilling experiences. Multiple-family groups can help whole-family units discover and develop their strengths. To nurture healthier, more life-loving children capable of making something better of that unknown world — this is the need and the challenge.
The Gestalt therapy examined here is one of the most innovative available today.
Successful sexual intimacy results from communications between the partners, and learning what is the most pleasant for each partner. Then increased sexual intimacy will result.
Robert C. Leslie, S.T.B., Ph.D. is Foster Professor of Pastoral Psychology and Counseling, Pacific School of Religion and Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, California. In order for small groups to be significant resources for growth, personal sharing needs to he a chief characteristic. Whatever else is carried on in the group, there needs to be a real place for the kind of sharing that leads to a feeling of support and closeness out of which relationships are deepened.
A stumbling-block to many clergymen in dealing with alcoholism is the issue of the ethical problem: sin vs. sickness; the problem of responsibility.
The interlocking of the generations becomes increasingly intrusive in the mid-years. Couples feel the crunch of being in the middle between the needs of still-dependent adolescents and aging parents This chapter suggests some ways of coping with the problems and realizing the rich possibilities of mid-years parenting and the empty nest. The approaches and methods here suggested can be used as resources by individual parents and by ministers and other leaders in planning parent training groups and marriage enrichment events.
This chapter covers some preliminary considerations for a minister who intends to counsel alcoholics: his attitude, goals, preparation and resources.
The renewal and growth which occurs within its fabric of relationships is clear evidence that that church is, in fact, a part of the Body of Christ, ministering to lonely, troubled persons at their point of greatest need. Creative church administration by ministers and laymen can help to provide such an organism through which the Spirit can be expressed in the world.
Parent-child intimacy begins when the infant is learning. This learning continues throughout the child’s life until at least it has left home to make a home of its own. Understanding the stages of a child’s life and how to cultivate intimacy from and with the child will help develop parent-child intimacy.
Our culture ordinarily provides relatively shallow interaction between the sexes during dating and courtship (even if sexual intercourse is involved as it often is). The dating games that youth are programmed to play by our society, hide real needs, fears, and vulnerabilities. Growth groups encourage in-depth communication and allow persons to know each other without masks.
Complete growth resources must also include counseling for the body as well as the psyche. Here three approaches are explored.
Dr. Clinebell gives guidance to the pastor and counselor for relating to and guiding couples in crisis.
Lawrence A. Purdy, B.D. is Regional Director, Metropolitan Toronto Region, Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, Canada. The religious community, historically opposed to tyrannies of all kinds, must recognize the nature of one of the more subtle and insidious tyrannies of our time — the tyranny of the chemical age. Those of us who are privileged to be on the firing line with our professional partners have a duty to help the church community articulate a message that meets this need.
Marriage relationships are often thrown off keel by the heavy pressure of multiple losses, changing roles, and diminished self-esteem. With the help of a skilled pastoral counselor or marriage counselor, many such couples not only weather the storm but develop a stronger relationship as a result of learning to handle it. This chapter describes some of the approaches by which couples in mid-years crisis can be helped to grow through counseling.
The counseling relationship involves the motivation and attitudes of both the counselor and the Alcoholic. This chapter provides some specific guidance in these areas.
This chapter provides guidance for Pastors and lay persons in the church as they plan and train leadership for intentional marriage programs.
John A. Snyder, B.D., Ed.D. is Associate Director of Education and Consultation, Pennsylvania Hospital Community Mental Health Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In our training programs for community clergymen at the Pennsylvania Hospital Community Mental Health Center we have been interested in mutual exchange: (1) We believe that psychiatry and its allied professions can help the clergyman do a better job with his healing ministry. (2) We believe clergymen have something unique to contribute to psychiatry in the whole business of prevention.
The awareness that a family, in all its creative experiences, is organically related to the creative forces of the universe is a moving religious experience. There is a security which comes to a person with this awareness of the way in which the person-regarding values in the family are supported by values in the universe, giving ultimate meaning to family life.
Growth-oriented groups are a practical means of moving to a prevention and fulfillment orientation and away from the repair-therapy orientation. Enhancing positive mental health in small groups for normal people may prevent many personal and family problems from developing.
Social change, including within the family and the church, can be difficult accomplishments. However, there are a several therapies where one or more will likely work any given situation.
A marriage is not complete when spiritual intimacy is absent.
The pastor can obstruct the work of grace if he does not understand himself or his people. That is why churches, theological schools, and laymen are taking a new look at the preparation of the Christian minister.
(ENTIRE BOOK) Thirty-three authorities, representing both the clergy and professionals active in mental health programs, respond to the challenge to church and temple made by the community mental health revolution.
The author encourages our growth whether or not his methods are used.
Effective involvement of churches and temples in community mental health requires strategies for moving into action. Some key aspects of such strategies, designed for leaders of local congregations, denominational and ecumenical leaders, those in the mental health field, and seminary teachers and administrators are here presented. Each of these groups has a significant role in releasing the untapped mental health potentialities of religious organizations.
Even though the pastor in preaching must deal simultaneously with persons of widely different needs, pastoral care can and must be attempted through preaching. Gregory offers direction in this complex and difficult task.
The existence of state laws requiring clergy to report evidence of physical or sexual abuse of children has become a source of controversy. (See, for example, Jeffery Warren Scott’s recent Century article, Confidentiality and Child Abuse: Church and State Collide," February 19.) The ethical goal of protecting children from harm appears to clash with the …
This past September Maine became one of many states that require clergy to report signs of possible child abuse or neglect that they may learn about in the course of their work. However, according to an article in the Portland Press Herald. “the law’s effectiveness is yet to be tested, in part because of protections …
(ENTIRE BOOK) A survey of current psychotherapy methods, including very helpful summaries of the views of Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, Ottor Rank, Eric Fromm, Karen Horney, Harry Stack Sullivan, Carl Jung, and Carl Rogers, as well as behavioral, transactional, gestalt and other therapies.
(ENTIRE BOOK) This book is not primarily about counseling theory and technique. Rather, it is an attempt to describe the important connection between good counseling and consciousness raising.
So long as one is pushing and another pushing back there is apt to be conflict. But rather than being negative, conflict can produce positive results when done in an orderly and productive manner.
A number of years ago, I enrolled in a “preacher-boys” class at a fundamentalist university in the South. The only requirement of the course was to witness to seven people every week and write a brief report on each contact. The teacher of the course—and the founder of the university—was an old-time Southern evangelist who …
I made my first retreat in the winter of 1947. John Oliver Nelson, the Presbyterian minister who founded Kirkridge Retreat Center in Bangor, Pennsylvania, in 1942, had invited 15 seminary-bound college students to spend two days and nights in Kirkridge’s farmhouse, keeping silence, walking the trails, studying the Bible and praying together. I was touched …
This volume, edited by Dr. Clinebell, provides information and opinion on the development of the community mental health program, expressed by men and women who have been closely associated with that development. In so doing, this book may provide an impetus to those community residents who are concerned with the improvement of modern community life.
The morning of September 19, 1978, promised a golden autumn day. The sun shone in my eyes at the breakfast table, and I asked my wife, Lorena, to pull the curtains on her side of the table. Over breakfast we chatted about the evening before — we had been to a party, and I had …
Most of us don’t like conflict. We usually find it perplexing, stressful and even downright destructive. So we tend to avoid conflict whenever possible. Yet I believe that conflict is not just inevitable but also indispensable — a uniquely valuable component of our personal and organizational lives. Without it, we lose our ability to hear …
(ENTIRE BOOK) Dr. Clinebell provides practical suggestions and programs to make good marriages better, to turn crises into opportunities for growth, and to activate congregations of faith as communities of caring.
(ENTIRE BOOK) You have more going for you than you think you do — probably lots more! Here are tools for discovering and using the rich potentialities of the mid-years, for personal renewal and for the enlivening of marriage. The author states that this book grew out of his own struggles and his experiences in enriching mid-years marriages, including his own.
(ENTIRE BOOK) This handbook addresses marriage and family enrichment, creative singlehood, human liberation, youth work and social change. These qualities of the human potential movement are brought together in a concise, clear and comprehensive way.
The Good Marriage: How and Why Love Lasts By Judith Wallerstein and Sandra Blakeslee. Houghton Mifflin, 352 pp., $22.95. The Good Divorce: Keeping Your Family Together When Your Marriage Comes Apart. By Constance R. Ahrons. HarperCollins, 301 pp., $23.00. I am absolutely convinced that children need to be brought up in a family where they …
This book is designed for two purposes — to provide resources and guidelines for ministers and other counselors for use in mid-years growth counseling and marriage enrichment; and to provide do-it-yourself help for mid-years couples who wish to enrich their own marriage.
Instructive material usually requires a plan of study and use. This section offers the suggestions that should help the reader gain the most from use of this book.
The author examines the changing roles of men and, particularly, of women in the church, and suggests counseling techniques for use by pastors and counselors.
In relating therapeutic counseling to the classical Christian pastoral tradition, the author draws upon his own personal psychological journey and offers the theological assertion that psychotherapeutic empathy is analogous to and reflective of God’s unconditional love.
The contemporary mental health thrust in the churches, while having the advantage of new insights from the sciences of man and new helping techniques from the psychotherapeutic disciplines, is essentially the same concern for the healing and growth of persons as was found in the ministry of Jesus and throughout the church’s history.
There is a revolution afoot in mental health that has two fronts: First is a massive effort to win a battle that mankind has been losing through the centuries. The second is to develop more effective ways of fostering positive mental health in all persons, to stimulate their growth and to help them release their unique potentialities for creative living and relating.
It is easy to think of nuclear weapons as a new phenomenon in history, a ‘basic change in the circumstances of life," in the words of Jonathan Schell. But recent analyses of the nuclear threat have also examined how it arises from longstanding patterns of human behavior. Increasingly, writing on disarmament modifies familiar terms to …
There is increasing evidence that the pastoral counseling movement has come of age. By "pastoral counseling movement," I mean the several thousand clergy with extensive training in counseling and psychotherapy who practice this function as a major dimension of their ministry. The maturity of the movement may be understood developmentally in terms of the familiar …
Being an assistant chaplain in a teeming New York hospital for mental and physical illnesses was the most emotionally challenging experience of that year. God’s justice never seemed more confusing or the church more marginal. Described by one of my professors as a “kind of spiritual EMT,” a chaplain works differently than a parish priest. …
The author writes as a theologian and minister, and claims no special competence in the field of pastoral counseling. Nevertheless, he has had the privilege of many years’ intimate discussion with those working in this field.
This book is one in the series on Creative Pastoral Care and Counseling. The series listed was written primarily for ministers (and those preparing for the ministry), but will also prove useful to other counselors who are interested in the crucial role of spiritual and value issues in all helping relationships. In addition the series will be useful in seminary courses, clergy support groups, continuing education workshops, and lay befriender training with a special emphasis to giving guidance and pastoral care and counseling of couples in their middle years.
“God may forgive your sins, but your nervous system won’t.” — Alfred Korzybski. One definition of psychiatry is, significantly, “treatment of souls.” A growing measure of responsible opinion argues convincingly that had religion been doing the job it should have done, psychiatry would never have arisen as a profession. Proponents of this view say that …
In 1993 John Patton coined the phrase "paradigm shift" to describe a dramatic turn in the practice of pastoral care. Patton pointed out that pastoral care was focusing more and more on social and cultural concerns, moving from a "clinical pastoral paradigm" to one that Patton named "communal-contextual." Both models evolved during the second half …
I have been a noontime runner for more than a dozen years. A decade ago I was a lonely figure on the campus track. But now, when the weather closes in and the geriatric jocks gather in the fieldhouse, I can count at least a hundred people at any one time between 11 o’clock and …
In the spring of 1957 I was managing the airport in Point Barrow, Alaska, the main supply site and a scene of heavy air traffic during the construction of the Distant Early Warning Line radar stations along Alaska’s northern coast. Working 50 to 60 hours a week, I hadn’t taken a day off for nearly …
The role of intimacy in marriage. Includes practical steps for group discussion.
(ENTIRE BOOK) Mental health is a central and inescapable concern for any local church that is a healing-redemptive fellowship. A local church today has an unprecedented opportunity to multiply its contributions to both the prevention and the therapeutic dimensions of mental health. A church can seize this opportunity most effectively by allowing mental health to become a leavening concern, permeating all areas of its life.
(ENTIRE BOOK) A theologian’s perspective on the issues involved in the pastoral task.
News being what it is, even a conscientious reader of the New York Times can get only scraps of information about the state of mental health services today. Such a reader would know, for instance, that already there have been some judicial decisions requiring mental hospitals to give treatment, and not just custodial care, to …
1980: The dawn of Nicaragua libre and the impending U.S. presidency of Reagan, its ardent foe. A time in which the pernicious AIDS virus was moving among us, and we were unaware. Three years before the invasion of Grenada and six before the falls of Marcos and Duvalier. Before the emergence of glasnost and of …
Most clergy think of themselves as counselors; as a physician I have shared many patients with ministers. The seminary bookstores are filled with works on therapy, and these studies of psychology and the helping arts seem to be taken very seriously by most ministers; the books in widespread use are thought to represent the “state …
(ENTIRE BOOK) This book is written for the person, professional or lay, who wishes to apply religious resources more effectively to the problem of alcoholism. It deals with what to teach concerning alcoholism and how to handle the alcoholic who comes seeking counsel.